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En

In

Preposition Dative (c.f. hen = one)

ρχ

Beginning

Voc.8 (p.197)

N-DF-S (Noun Dative Feminine Singular) arche(i) à head, rule; mon+archy; mon+arch; archaic (first declension, p.39)

Was

VII- -ZS Verb: Imperfect Indicative Active : Verb to be

(Tense + Mood + Voice) (Lesson 13, p.52)

λγος

The Logos

N-NM-S Noun Second Declension

κα

And

John tends to link sentences together with kai rather than the more complex constructions that are common in Greek.

πρς

With // to, into (+acc.) 10 (p.199); p.86(phrase)

pro" with the accusative usually means 'in the presence of', but cf. Proverbs 8:30 for a parallel usage with respect to Wisdom. John's sense here is that the logo" was preexistent, creative and divine. (Barrett?)

τν θεν

The God

Accusative form (The article follows the accusative form of the noun, so it has become + on.)

Noun: Second Declension: ho logos, -ou (‘o logoV, -ou) Lesson 5 (p. 30)

o qeoV, -ou (The God)

Term

Meaning

Singular

Plural

Nominative :

Vocative:

Accusative:

Genitive:

Dative:

Subject – a god

Address /calling – O God !

Direct Object – a god

possessive – of a god

indirect Object – to/for a god

N: + oV

V: + e

A: + on

G: + ou

D: + w(i)

N: + oi

V: + oi

A: + ouV

G: + wn

D: + oiV

Note all in Greek order.

1:1 And the Word was before(with) the God (accusative).

And God was the Logos (from the complement, it is “the Logos was the God.”)

  1. The God sends the words. (‘o QeoV pempei touV logouV) Subject + Verb + Object
  2. I give this book to you. (Subj. + verb + direct object + indirect object)
  3. Kurie eleison (Lord! Have mercy (on ….)!) Vocative
  4. [w] Kurie, swzeiV (Lord! You save! // O Lord, you save)
  5. My Lord! Please lead our ways! (Vocative)

Note: But the word immediately after a preposition will be influenced by it. For example, 1:1 And the Word was before (with) the God (accusative). [If it is not the preposition, the God will be in Nominative. Because ‘Verb to be” does not change the status of the noun.

For example, I am a man (Nom + Verb + Nom).

I have a car (Nom. + Verb + Acc.)

There is NO indefinite article in Greek. Therefore logoV may means “a word” or “word”.

The context may give us some hints.

QeoV estin o LogoV. The Word is God (Textbook p. 35 and footnote 2.)

Transitive and In-transitive Verbs: (導電之物; 傳播”) (pp. 6-77)

Transitive:

laloumen logouV (Accusative Plural)

We speak words

Intransitive:

laloumen

We talk

Number

Verbs agree with their subject in number.

A man raises a stone. (AnqrwpoV egeirei liqon.)

Men raise a stone. (Anqrwpoi egeirousin liqon.)

Review: Lesson 3 vocabularies : Verb

Learn: Lesson 4 vocabularies : Verb

John 1:2

οτος: APDNM-S: This (one ) Adj. pronominal demonstrative Nom. Masc. Sing. Lesson 14 (p.205) Occasionally these are used for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’. (Dem. Pronoun / adj.)

Review : Grammar: Dem. Pronoun / adj. (p.3)

John 1:3

πντα διατοῦ ἐγνετο, καχωρς ατοῦ ἐγνετο οδὲ ἕν, γγονεν

egeneto: became (VIAD- -ZS) Verb: Aorist Indicative Middle Deponent (=Active, p.93), Third person Singular. punctiliar ejgeneto (vv. 3,6,14). Past + point

panta (all things, everything; with “whole” sense.) Thus uses singular verb.[Bauer, p.632, 2d]

E.g. panta umwn estin everything is yours, belongs to you (1 Cor 3:21; c.f. 22)

Tense: English (p. 11) Greek (7 tenses max. ; around 4 mostly used.)

 

Past

Present

Future

Continuous

I was loving

(Imperfect)

I am loving

(Present) Participle*

I shall be loving

(Future)

Simple (Point)

I loved

(Aorist) Indicative*

I love

(Present)

I shall love

Complete

I had loved

(Pluperfect)

I have loved

(Perfect)

I shall have loved

(Future Perfect)

Continuous-complete (Greek doesn’t have them.)

I had been loving

I have been loving

I shall have been loving