web space | website hosting | Web Hosting | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

Use Your Greek in daily life (2): Greek influence on English


A) Why would I want to study Greek? (Modern Greek)

B) 希望包括一些受希臘文影響的英文, 以致使學員的英文水平, 因學本課程而提高. 反之,也可以幫助記希臘文生字.(這是基於以往學者引入希臘文;加上近代用希臘文來派生出新的字(Neo-Hellenization of English).

etymologists - college boards and SAT's (ETYMOLOGICAL THEORY)
improving spelling - root and affix study
librarians - medical and nursing studies
vocabulary study - lesson preparation

Book: Greek Roots and Their Modern English Spelling: A Dictionary of Roots Transliterated from Ancient Greek with their Modern English Spellings By Raymond E. Laurita

Such prefixes as

  1. poly- (much, many),
  2. micro- (small),
  3. anti- (against),
  4. auto- (self),
  5. hemi- (half),
  6. hetero- (different),
  7. chrono- (time),
  8. tele- (distance),
  9. geo- (earth),
  10. physio- (nature),
  11. photo- (light),
  12. hydro- (water),
  13. litho- (stone),
  14. phono- (sound),
  15. anthropo- (man),
  16. psycho- (mind), and
  17. philo- (love),
  18. chrono- time (chronology, chronometer)
  19. lithy- stone (lithoglyph, lithography)
  20. pachy- thick (pachycephalic, pachyderm)

each generate dozens of vital words in scientific, technical, and other fields.

Equally important Greek suffixes are

  1. -meter (measure),
  2. -gram (letter),
  3. -graph (write),
  4. -scope (see),
  5. -phone (sound), and
  6. -phobia (fear).
  7. -hemia blood (polycythemia) noun
  8. -iasis a pathological condition (hypochondriasis, psoriasis) noun
  9. -zoic a specific geological division (Mesozoic)

over 500 modern English roots with their original Greek meanings:

  1. BOTE = herb, plant (botany, botanist)
  2. DEND = tree (dendrite, philodendron)
  3. RRHAGE = to burst forth (hemorrhage, menorrhagia)

Please do not link to this page.  This URL is not static, and you will eventually find yourself with a dead link.  Please link to Buncha Roots Home Page.


Copyright© 1994 Tammy McQuoid--please refer to complete copyright comments in the Latin Section.
 http://abasiccurriculum.com/homeschool/roots/k/ (Note that the homos is different from homoio- where this link has given a wrong word example which I have corrected..)

Greek Prefix(es)

Definition(s)

Examples of Prefix(es)

a, an 

not, without 

amoral, anarthria 

amphi 

about, around, both 

amphibian, amphibolite 

ana 

up, against 

anapest, anasarca 

anti 

against, opposite 

antivivisection, antipodes 

cata 

down 

catacomb, catapult 

dia, di 

across, through 

dialysis, dialect 

epi 

upon, over 

episode, epistle 

exo 

outside, outer part 

exoteric, exostosis 

eu 

well 

euphemism, euthanasia, eugenics 

heteros 

other 

heterodox, heterogeneous 

homoio- or homeo- (from homoios)

Like; similar

homoiothermal [1]

homos 

same 

homonym

hyper 

over, extremely 

hypergamy, hyperpnea

hypo 

under, in smaller measure 

hypocrite, hypocaust 

meta 

after, over, between 

metaplasia, metathesis 

para 

beside 

parable, paradox 

peri 

around, about 

perimeter, periphery 

poly 

many, much 

polygamy, polyhedron, polyglot 

pro 

before 

procrastinate, projectile 

syn, sym, syl, sys 

together, with, by means of 

syllable, synapsis, syncretism

Greek Suffix

Definition

Examples of Suffix

osis 

state, condition, action 

neurosis, psychosis 

Roots

Greek Root(s)

Definition(s)

Example(s) of Root(s)

acro 

tip, top, apex, pointed 

acropolis, acrophobia 

agogos, agein 

to lead, to direct, to incite 

demagogue, pedagogic 

agon, agonia 

struggle, contest 

antagonist, agony 

agro, agros 

field, earth, soil 

agronomy, agrostology 

algia 

pain 

neuralgia, diaphragmalgia 

allo, allos 

other, departure from normal 

allopath, allogamy 

andros, aner, anthropos 

man, stamen 

anthropomorphic, androsphinx 

anemo, anemos 

wind 

anemometer, anemophilous 

archaeo, archaios 

ancient, old, original 

archaeology, archeozoic 

arch, archos 

chief, first, rule 

monarch, archipelago, archangel

aristo, aristos 

best 

aristocracy, aristocrat 

astron, aster, astro 

star 

aster, astral 

auto, autos 

self 

autoharp, autoimmune, autochthon 

baro, baros 

pressure, weight 

barograph, barometer 

barys 

heavy 

barium, hyperbaric 

biblos, biblion 

book, of books 

bibliopole, bibliolatry 

bios 

life, living things 

biocenosis, bionics, biopsy 

caco 

bad, poor, evil 

cacophony, cacoethes 

chiro, cheir 

hand 

chiromancy, chiropter 

chroma, chromato 

color 

chromomere, chromoprotein 

chrono, chronos 

time 

chronograph, chronicle 

cosmos 

world, order 

cosmography, cosmic 

cracy, crat 

type of government 

theocracy, bureaucrat 

crypto 

hide 

cryptogam, cryptogenic 

cyclos 

circular, wheel 

cyclothymia, cyclorama 

deca 

ten 

Decapolis, decaliter 

demos 

people 

demographics, endemic, democrat 

dendron 

tree 

dendrochronology, dendroid 

derma 

skin 

hypodermic, dermoid 

deutero, deuter 

second 

Deuteronomy, deuterocanonical 

didonai, dosis 

give 

dose, dosage 

dis, di 

twice, doubly 

dichotomy, dipody 

doxo 

opinion, praise 

heterodox, doxology

dynamis 

power 

dynamo, dyne 

esthesia 

the ability to feel sensation 

anesthesia, aesthetics 

ethnos 

race, nation 

ethnomusicology, ethnocentrism 

gamos 

marriage 

monogamy, polygamy 

gastro 

stomach 

gastritis, gastrolith, gastric 

ge, geo 

earth 

geodesic, geometry 

gen, geno2

race, kind, descent 

Genesis

glot, glossa1

tongue, language 

glossary, monoglot, glossalalia 

glyphe 

carving 

petroglyph, glyphography

gon 

figure having angles 

pentagon, polygon 

gonos 

to produce 

cosmogony, theogony 

gramma, gram 

something written or drawn 

telegram, electrocardiogram 

grapho 

write 

lithography, graphology 

gyn, gyneco 

woman, women 

misogyny, gyniatrics, gynarchy 

hemo, hema 

blood 

hemoglobin, hematoma 

hedron, hedral, hedra 

side, base, seat 

hexahedral, polyhedron 

helios 

sun, bright 

heliotropic, helium, heliograph 

hemi 

half 

hemisphere, hemicranial 

hepta 

seven 

heptahedron, heptameter 

hexa 

six 

hexameter, hexahedron

hiero 

sacred, holy 

hieroglyphic, hierophant 

hydor, hydro 

water 

hydroponics, hydrology 

hypno 

sleep 

autohypnosis, hypnotoxin

icono 

image, likeness, figure 

iconology, iconostasis 

ideo 

idea 

ideogram, ideophone 

isos 

equal, alike, identical 

isocracy, isometric 

kilo, chilioi 

thousand 

chiliarch, kilocalorie, kilovolt 

klastes 

breaker, broken 

iconoclast, clastic 

latreia 

service, worship 

idolatry, demonolatry 

lithos, lite 

stone 

chrysolite, lithotomy 

logos 

word, study 

logic, logomachy 

lysis 

to loosen 

analysis, electrolysis 

macros, macro 

enlarged, elongated 

macrocosm, macropterous 

mania 

madness 

pyromania, kleptomania 

mega 

large, powerful 

megapod, megalith 

megalo 

large, great, enlarged 

megalocardia, megalomania 

metron 

measure 

thermometer, metronome 

micros, micro 

small 

microcosm, microphone 

miso, misein 

to hate 

misogyny, misology, misoneism 

monos 

one, alone 

monocle, monosyllable 

morphe 

form 

metamorphic, morphallaxis 

mytho 

myth 

mythological, mythos 

naus, nautes3

ship, sailor 

naumachia, astronaut, navigation

necro 

physical death, corpse 

necrology, necrophagia 

neos 

new, young 

Neoplatonism, neoprene 

neuron, neuro 

nerve 

neuritis, neuropteran 

nomos 

law, science, management 

nomography, astronomer 

octo 

eight 

octagonal, octogenarian 

oligo 

few, scant, small 

oligarchy, oliguria 

onoma, onym 

name 

allonym, homonym 

opsis, optic, ophthalmo 

view, sight 

optical, amblyopia 

ornitho 

bird, birds 

ornithopter, ornithosis 

oro 

mountain 

orogenic, orology

orthos 

right, correct 

orthography, orthogenesis 

osteon 

bone 

osteoporosis, ossify 

pais, paidos 

child 

pediatric, pedobaptism 

paleo 

ancient, early, prehistoric 

paleontology, paleolithic 

pan 

all, every 

pandemonium, Pandora 

pater, patri 

father 

patronymic, patrician 

pathos, path 

suffering, disease 

empathy, pathogen 

ped, pedo 

small child 

pediatrics, pedant, pedobaptism 

penta 

five 

Pentateuch, pentathlon 

petros 

rock, stone 

petrography, petrol 

phago, phage 

eating, destroying 

anthropophagite, phagocyte

phainein 

to show, be visible 

emphasis, fantasy, fancy 

philos 

loving 

philharmonic, philately

Copyright© 1994 Tammy McQuoid

phobia, phobos 

fear, dread 

photophobia, xenophobia

phone 

sound, speak 

phonograph, phoneme 

phos, photo 

light 

photobiotic, phosgene 

physis, physio 

nature 

physiologic, physiocrat 

plasma 

form 

plasmodium, deutoplasm 

pneuma 

air, breath, spirit 

pneumothorax, pneumococcus 

podos, pous 

foot 

octopus, chiropodist, podiatry 

polis 

city 

politician, Neopolitan, police 

polys 

many 

polynomial, polymer 

protos 

first 

proton, protozoa 

pseudes, pseudo 

false, fake 

pseudoscience, pseudosalt 

psycho 

soul, mind, breath 

psychometry, psychosis

ptero 

feather, wing 

pterosaur, pteropod 

pyr 

fire 

pyromaniac, pyrography, pyretic, pyrogen

rheo, rrhea 

flow, current 

logorrhea, rheophile 

schizo 

cleave, cut 

schizogenesis, schizogony 

scopos, skopein 

spy, watcher, to see 

telescope, otoscope 

seismo 

earthquake 

seismology, seismic 

sophia

wisdom 

sophomoric, sophist 

sphero 

sphere, ball, layer of gas 

ionosphere, atmosphere, spheroid 

static 

causing to stand 

hydrostatics, electrostatic 

taphos 

tomb, bury 

epitaph 

techno 

art 

tectonic, technocrat 

tele 

far, far off 

telemetry, telencephalon 

temno, tomos 

cut, that which is cut off, out 

appendectomy, lobotomy, tome 

tetra 

four 

tetrarch, Tetragrammaton 

thanato 

death 

thanatopis, thanatology, euthanasia 

theos 

god 

monotheism, theophany 

therapy 

to cure, nurse 

therapeutics, heliotherapy 

thermo 

heat 

thermophile, thermotaxis 

thesis, tithenai 

position 

synthesis, thesis 

topo 

place, local 

toponym, topographic, topic 

typos 

type, figure, model 

typography, typify 

zoon 

animal 

zoogenic, zoonosis

Endnotes

1 GLOSSA is a Greek and Latin combining form. An arbitrary decision was made to include it in the Greek list only. (This analysis is WRONG! It is a Greek word. Glossa is from tongue (glossa) in Lesson 9, vocabulary in p.198 the last three word.)

2 See GENUS in Latin. According to the dictionary most GEN words are of Latin derivation.

3 NAUS is actually Indo-European, a language spoken prior to Greek and Latin. In Greek NAUS remained NAUS, while in Latin NAUS became NAVIS -- both meaning BOAT. From Latin, we received NAVY, NAVAL, etc.

Bibliography

Brown, James I., and Rachel Salisbury, Building a Better Vocabulary, The Ronald Press Company, New York, NY, 1959.

Davies, Peter, Roots: Family Histories of Familiar Words, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1981.

Davis, C. Rexford, Vocabulary Building, William Sloane Associates, Inc., New York, NY, 1951.

Greever, Garland, and Joseph M. Bachelor, The Century Vocabulary Builder, The Century Co., New York, NY, 1922.

Guralnik, David B., Webster's New World Dictionary, William Collins Publishers, Inc., Cleveland, OH, 1979.

Johnson, Edwin Lee, Latin Words of Common English, D. C. Heath and Company, Boston, MA, 1931.

Sayers, Dorothy L., "The Lost Tools of Learning," in Rosamond Kent Sprague (ed.), A Matter of Eternity, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI, 1973, pp. 107-135.

Thomas, Clayton L., Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1989.

Wilson, Douglas, Recovering the Lost Tools of Learning: An Approach to Distinctively Christian Education, Crossway Books, Wheaton, IL, 1991.

Copyright© 1994 Tammy McQuoid



[1] Homoiothermal  \Ho*moi`o*ther"mal\, a. [Gr. ? like + E. thermal.] (Physiol.) Maintaining a uniform temperature; h[ae]matothermal; homothermic; -- applied to warm-bodied animals, because they maintain a nearly uniform temperature in spite of the great variations in the surrounding air; in distinct from the cold-blooded (poikilothermal) animals, whose body temperature follows the variations in temperature of the surrounding medium. Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.