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新約 馬太福音 課程大綱 (連 查經資料) - updated on 2003-12-11

New Testament - Matthew course:

故事/襯々尷R法 (Narrative Criticism); 襯け鑑法

故事分析法 (Narrative Criticism)



  1. A form of textual criticism that is a continuation of redaction criticism, looking at the text as story world. An interdisciplinary effort to adopt secular literary criticism. Distinguishes between real and implied author. Seeks to interpret the text from the point of view of the implied reader. Narrative must be read sequentially and completely. Reader agrees to accept the dynamics and value system of the story world as established by the implied author.(source) [Remark: There is something strange in this definition. Narrative criticism is a protest against redaction criticism, rather than a continuation. It always contrasts its method with redaction criticism.]
  2. Narrative criticism focuses on biblical narrative, analyzing plot, sequence and timing of events, characterization, and the use of literary techniques such as irony, humor, and repetition as ways of developing the story and its significant themes. (source)
  3. Narrative Criticism: The type of literary criticism described below is referred to as Narrative Criticism, which focuses on the literary shape of the text. The narrative critic examines the text to discern its aspect (fiction or non-fiction, prose or poetry), genre (history, legend, myth, etc.), structure (including plot, theme, irony, foreshadowing, etc.), characterization, and narrative perspective. (source)


在八十年代初期,美國的聖經批判學者 與 非聖經的文學批評理論相結合而成.但文學世界並沒有相對應的襯ぃ憪P學,最相近的是襯ご祩(narrative poetics)和襯ず(narratology).敘事批判學者以福音書是一個文學性的整體.他們關心的不再是福音書的起源,而是文本內各要素間的互動關係;以及它們怎樣產生意義.傳統上的分類包括:人物(Character),佈局(Plot),場景(Setting).參考襯ずョA他們加上修辭學(rhetoric)或論述(discourse)--故事怎樣被講述.

Narrative Text
Real Author ---> Implied Author ---> (Narrator) ---> (Narratee) ---> Implied Reader ---> ---> Real Reader

The inplied author [coined by Wayner Booth] refers to the 'creating person who is implied by the totality of a given work when it is offered to the world'. Note that when the real author is dead, the implied author continues to communicate with the readers. The readers may not have direct access to the real author, but the implied author is always reachable.



Method [taken from Narrative Criticism]

To examine a text as a literary critic would, apply these four steps to it:

1. 分析文體 Analyze the form (literary aspect and genre) of the text. Is it fiction or non-fiction, prose or poetry? What is its genre?

N2.2.3. Here is an incomplete list of various narrative themes and genres.

  • narratives of personal experience: Labov's (1972) famous analysis of a corpus of stories based on interview questions such as "Were you ever in a situation where you were in serious danger of being killed?".
  • biblical narratives: Kermode (1979); Sternberg (1985); Bal (1987, 1988).
  • teacher's narratives: Cortazzi (1993).
  • children's narratives: Applebee (1978); Branigan (1992: 18-19).
  • doctor's narratives: Hunter (1993).
  • family narratives: Flint (1988); Jonnes (1990); Style 31.2 (1997) [special issue, ed. John Knapp].
  • courtroom narratives/legal narratives: Brooks and Gewirtz, eds. (1996); Posner (1997)
  • historiographic autobiography/fictional autobiography: Lejeune (1989); Cohn (1999: ch. 2); Loschnigg (1999).
  • hypertext narratives: Ryan (1997)
  • musical narratives: McClary (1997)
  • filmic narratives: Kozloff (1988); Chatman (1978; 1990); see also this project's film page pppf.htm
  • mental (or 'internal') narratives: Schank (1995); Ricoeur (1991); Turner (1996); Jahn (2003)

2. 分析文學結構 Analyze the literary structure of the piece. Follow this procedure:

a . 場景(Setting) - setting = The general locale and historical time in which the action of a story occurs; it can also refer to the particular physical location in which a particular scene or episode occurs.

c. 元素 Elements - What are the key symbol(s)? motif(s)? theme(s)?

3. 分析故事中的人物 Analyze the characters in the story. (人物造形 characterization)

4. 故事的角度 Examine the narrative perspective of the account.



Events (or Plot)
Overt and implicit commentary (Narrator, point of view)
  • Flat, round, and stock
  • Degree of focalization
  • Inside or outside views
  • Telling and showing
  • Ideological point of view (and that of the narrator - empathy or sympathy)
  • Order
  • Duration
  • Frequency (told once, happened once; happened once, told repeatedly; happened repeatedly, told once; happened repeatedly, told repeatedly)
  • Causation
  • Plot
  • Time
  • Place
  • Social
  • Point of view of narration
    • person
    • knowledge
    • reliability
  • Irony
  • Allusion

Implied author - the image of the author derived from reading the story.

Implied reader - "the one who performs all the mental moves required to enter into the narrative world and respond to it as the implied author intends" (R. Alan Culpepper, Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel [Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983] 7).


The following outline is taken from THE HERMENEUTICAL SPIRAL: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation By Grant R. Osborne

6. Narrative

The Methodology of Narrative Criticism

1. Implied Author and Narrator
2. Point of View, Ideology and Narrative World
3. Narrative and Story Time
4. Plot
5. Characterization
6. Setting
7. Implicit Commentary
8. The Implied Reader

The Weakness of Narrative Criticism

1. A Dehistoricizing Tendency
2. Setting Aside the Author
3. A Denial of Intended or Referential Meaning
4. Reductionistic and Disjunctive Thinking
5. The Imposition of Modern Literary Categories upon Ancient Genres
6. A Preoccupation with Obscure Theories
7. Ignoring the Understanding of the Early Church
8. A Rejection of the Sources behind the Books

Methodological Principles for Studying Narrative Texts

1. Structural Analysis
2. Stylistic Analysis
3. Redactional Analysis
4. Exegetical Analysis
5. Theological Analysis
6. Contextualization
7. Use a Narrative Form for the Sermon




Narrative Theory


Examples in Applying this method

Criticism in General

Specific Narrative Techniques


Book Reviews


Course Outlines from other scholars