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引論:兩約中間及新約的歷史和社會背景

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

舊約, 兩約中間 至 新約時間表


722 BC 北國被滅 (720 BC 春秋開始) (704 BC 楚王國興起)

586 BC 南國被滅

331 BC 波斯被滅,希臘興起

331-323 BC 亞歷山大大帝(Alexander the Great)

277- 27 BC 大帝死後, 眾將分治天下; 後成為三分: 馬其頓, 西流基(北), 多利買(南)

因為宗教逼迫,猶太人反叛,而成馬加比獨立戰.

167-166 BC 馬加比戰爭觸發期 [西漢: 206 BC - AD 8]

166-135 BC 馬加比戰爭: 五虎將時代

166-160 BC 五虎將時代: 三將軍猶大

166-164 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 使聖殿重光

163-162 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 獲宗教自由

161-160 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 爭政治獨立

160-143 BC 五虎將時代: 五將軍約拿單

142-135 BC 五虎將時代: 二將軍西門: 獲得獨立(142 BC)

135-63 BC哈斯摩尼朝 [新朝 公元9年-公元23年]

63 BC-AD 68 羅馬帝國: 奧古士督至尼祿 [東漢: AD 25-220]

 

1希臘帝國及羅馬時期 :

    1. 安提阿以比凡尼 (Antiochus IV. Antiochus Epiphanes (ca. 215-164 BCE).)
    2. 教義/聖經:復活的概念--在馬加比書(一,二,三書)中強烈.
    3. 聖經:敵基督模範--太 24:15『你們看見先知但以理所說的,那行毀壞可憎的站在聖地•(讀\這經/的人須要會意)•』敵基督的模範.啟示錄也用這個模範.

 

1.1 安提阿以比凡尼(Antiochus Epiphanes)

(Antiochus IV Antiochus Epiphanes, 215-164 BC)

http://life.fhl.net/~cls/faculty/cms/liang/laa/laa-011.htm (我改了部份內容)

猶大被擄被滅之後,新興的波斯帝國一反過去巴比倫的政策,善待被擄的人,允許他們返國,又協助他們重建聖殿。不過在公元前331年 ,波斯王大利烏三世卻被發兵東征的亞歷山大帝所敗,希臘取代波斯稱霸世界。

亞歷山大極力在帝國所屬各地推行希臘化政策,但是他不幸在公元前323年猝死(狂飲而得熱病而死),希臘帝國初由兩個攝政王分治,後皇室成員全被滅,四雄爭天下,後分裂為三個部份(280-30BC):

    1. 多利買朝 南朝: 統治埃及和敘利亞南部,
    2. 西流基朝 北朝: 統治小亞細亞、敘利亞北部、原波斯帝國東部,
    3. 馬其頓朝 西朝: 統治希臘本土,

猶大所在的巴勒斯坦本來歸南方的多利買王朝所管,但是在公元前198年,北方西流古王朝的安提阿哥三世擴張版圖,擊敗多利買王朝的軍隊,將巴勒斯坦收歸西流古王朝的屬地。當時的猶太人歡迎西流古王朝接管,而安提阿哥三世亦善待猶太人。事實上,猶太人在內政方面享有相當的自主權,由祭司當政,他們只要向王朝納稅並效忠即可。

但是接下來的西流古四世和安提阿哥依皮法尼由於疲於應付新興的羅馬,不得不加重稅金。安提阿哥依皮法尼更是壓榨猶太人,

    1. 他一方面撤換大祭司,
    2. 一方面強力推行希臘化,
    3. 又強迫猶太人參加偶像崇拜,甚至把希臘神像和祭壇立於聖殿之內。(也包括他自己的神像 (<<兩約中間史略>> , 頁259.)

猶太人在忍無可忍的情況下,終於在公元前 164 年爆發瑪迦比革命,建立了一個短暫的自己的王國(哈斯摩尼朝)。

簡史:

國曆一四五年(即公元一六六年)希臘官員來到摩丁村,猶太人領袖馬他提亞(Mattathias, 意為「神所賜的」)領眾殺之,又拆外邦祭壇。高聲說:「凡熱心律法,擁護聖約的,請跟我來!」.一村因要守安息日,被殺千人,後安息日也殺敵.一年後他戰死,其五子接繼.(參馬加比一書第2章) [參 約瑟夫著的 猶太古史 Book I, Chapter I]

167-166 BC 馬加比戰爭觸發期

166-135 BC 馬加比戰爭: 五虎將時代

166-160 BC 五虎將時代: 三將軍猶大

166-164 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 使聖殿重光

猶大勝了三戰:最後在伯夙之戰(北曆148年),以一萬之眾敗敵六萬,後回聖殿.9月25日舉行獻殿禮, 歡樂8日, 後稱修殿節(約10:22 - "在耶路撒冷有修殿節,是冬天的時候" ); 猶太人稱為Hanukkah(奉獻); 今天也有拉比 稱為 "眾光節". 以下是詳情: (原為簡体)

猶人現在採取主動了,他奪取了耶路撒冷,重新修茸聖殿,在十二月二十五日,就是三年前聖殿被污穢的紀念日,他再重組正統的祭禮(後來猶太人仍守這日為他們的修殿節──參看約翰十章廿二節)。猶大也奪取了那地的各個主要據點。安提阿哥現在似乎要計劃進行更大的報復行動,可是在波斯的以利買(Elymais)之役卻給他帶來更慘重的相反效果。跟著再加上在猶大省之役又大敗,使他產生一種離奇的恐懼。這恐懼後來變成他至死的頑疾,據說他是在一種胡言亂語,神經失常的狀態之下死去的。

這個看來像是神顯示最後救贖的暗號,可是後來証實剛剛相反,最致命的危機現在才來到,安提阿哥的兒子還是年幼,利西亞於是自立為敘利亞的攝政者,他立刻率領十二萬大軍進攻猶大省,猶大和他的軍隊在百蘇拿(Bethsura)被擊敗,於是退回耶路撒冷,在那裡他們被困了一段悠長的日子,瑪加比的軍隊奮勇抵抗,可是因著絕了補給品,許多飢餓過度的猶太人便棄城而逃,猶大的軍隊人數越來越少,直至關志盡失,投降快要成為不能避免的事實。 可是正當山窮水盡之時,利西亞突然聽到敘利亞京都立了一個與他對敵的攝政者,於是他勸安提阿哥的幼子和其他王子,與猶大省的猶太人簽訂友好和平條約,答應讓他們恢復所有的宗教自由。這樣,瑪加比革命在似乎快到粉碎的地步,卻變為成功的歡呼。

這種歡欣沒有持續多久,跟著,另一個危機又出現了。底密特力阿斯一世(Demetrius)繼任為敘利亞王。他在耶路撒冷數度採取反瑪加比的行動之後,終於派了一支由尼卡挪領導的軍隊去殺猶大。可是猶大把他們擊敗,並且殺了尼卡挪。在這時候,猶大謀求與羅馬聯盟。羅馬在當時已經發展成為世界最有武力的國家,但是他的聯盟還未帶給他什麼成果之前,他卻勇敢地帶領幾個人去對抗一支敘利亞的龐大軍隊,結果他就被殺了。

163-162 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 獲宗教自由

猶大勝了四戰役,但最後在耶路撒冷因糧盡而敗; 但因北方王急回國, 而簽和約: 取消宗教壓逼條例, 不論猶大以往抵抗之罪, 但耶京要拆城.

161-160 BC 五虎將時代:三將軍猶大: 爭政治獨立

160-143 BC 五虎將時代: 五將軍約拿單

142-135 BC 五虎將時代: 二將軍西門: 獲得獨立(142 BC)

西門得北王底米丟二世立為「猶大國大祭司大元帥領袖」(得獨立)王權問題! (利未支派 vs 猶大支派)

[另參: The Use of OT Quotations by Hebrews -- B. 2. Ps 110 taken as an example. 留意: 希伯來書首創將兩種王權合一在基督身上.

& Tradition History of Psalm 110 ]

資料:瑪加伯上(瑪加比傳上) 1:20-64(天主教聖經內有)~安提阿以比凡尼的情況:參但11:29-45 [詳解參 謝友王著 兩約中間史略, 頁239-241]

 

1.2 教義/聖經:復活的概念

來源: http://www.ctts.org.tw/share/progogay.htm馬加比傳(下)都肯定了:(留意這是天主教的看法, 新教不接受這書為正典.)

死者復活(7:9;14:46)、死後的賞罰(6:26)、為亡者代禱的功效(12:41-45)、殉道者的酬報(6:18-7:41)與聖人的代禱(15:12-16)等。

 

1.3 聖經:敵基督模範

但以理書──>馬加比書──>馬太福音──>啟示錄

太 24:15『你們看見先知但以理所說的,那行毀壞可憎的站在聖地•(讀\這經/的人須要會意)•』敵基督的模範.啟示錄也用這個模範來詮釋.

啟13:11-18 (地上來的獸) [假先知Vs 聖靈]

vv.11-12 鼓勵對敵基督的敬拜 可能指:羅馬的護民宮/祭司/假基督徒先知

敵基督的格式(Antichrist-pattern) 要點:

1.與安提阿或尼祿一樣的暴君。

2.集大權於一身。

3.要求被敬拜(13.7)--> 神性。

4.逼迫信徒。

5.只統治短時期。(short time)

 

1.4 羅馬時期

年代

名稱

事件

希律家族

主前100-44年

猶流 Julius Caesar

   

主前43-27年

三頭統治

   

主前30-主後68年

猶流革老丟王朝

Julio-Claudian Dynasty

大希律(主前73-4)

主前30-主後14年

亞古士督(Augustus)

基督誕生 (爭霸)

亞基老(4BC-AD6)族君

主後14-37年

提庛留(Tiberius)

基督傳道,離世  (義子)

安提帕被外父所敗AD36

主後37-41年

加利古勒(Caligula)

主升天後第一位皇帝 (選)

亞基帕王(AD37-44)

主後41-54年

革老丟(Claudius)

饑荒; (選)

 

主後54-68年

尼錄(Nero)

羅馬逼迫 (養子)

亞基帕二世

主後68年

迦勒巴(Galba)

 
 

主後69年

奧佗(Otho)

 
 

主後69年

威特留(Vitellius)

貪吃者 “the Glutton”

 
主後69-96年 夫拉維王朝

Flavian Dynasty

 

主後69-79年

維斯帕先(Vespasian)

耶路撒冷被毀 (叛)

 

主後79-81年

提多(Titus)

他的健康較差 (長子)

 

主後81-96年

多米田(Domitian)

逼迫? (次子)

 

主後96-98年

維雅(Nerva)

   

主後98-117年

他雅努(Trajan)

   

主後117-138年

哈德良(Hadrian)

   

大希律(有十妻, 十子五女)死後,經羅馬皇帝的安排,分為三份:

  1. 亞基老(4BC-AD6)族君( ethnarch, leader of the nation),統治猶太,撒瑪利亞,以土買.他曾下令追殺聖嬰(太2:22). 因為為人殘暴,由猶太人和撒瑪利亞人和兩位兄弟聯名控告,被充軍12年(主後18年)而死.所治之地由羅馬巡撫治理,其時為主後6年.
  2. 安提帕 加利利分封王(tetrarch), 兼治比利亞.奪嫂子而離異髮妻,被施洗約翰所責而動殺機.聖經只稱為希律(太14:3, 可6:17, 路9:7, 13:31, 23:7). 誣告新任的亞基帕王通番, 反被充軍而死.(希律的酵是指其妻? 可8:15)
  3. 腓力第二 特拉可尼分封王,兼治高蘭(Gaulanitis),尼塔尼亞(Batanea),巴尼亞(Panea); 後加入土利亞,浩蘭,亞比利尼等地.境內猶太人少,襲Q亞人和希臘人多.以包青天式出巡,被人民愛戴,作分封王38年.其妻就是以跳舞使希律願捐出一半國家的撒羅米.他擴建巴尼亞為該撒利亞腓立比(太16:13); 使伯賽大發展為大城, 命為猶利亞(Julias), 以記念奧古士督女(提庇留之妻).

下一、二代

亞基帕一世(Agrippa I, 主後37-44 作猶太王, 生於主前10年)

與加利古勒熟,又因支持他早登位下獄,後帝崩,而加利古勒上任,而被重用.

帝死後,推薦革老丟為帝有功,被封為猶太人的王;取消巡撫.他用刀殺了約翰的哥哥雅各,使彼得下獄(徒12:1-4);後被蟲咬死(徒12:23).

 

亞基帕二世(Agrippa II, 主後27-100年)

父死接任時為17歲, 羅馬皇帝改用巡撫制. 後在22歲時被立為克克司王。尼祿登位, 給他耶路撒冷的宗教領袖委任權。巡撫非斯都時, 一同審訊保羅.(徒25:13, 23, 26:2, 13, 19)。

 

百尼基(Bernice, or Berenice)

亞基帕一世之長女,與其胞兄亞基帕二世常出雙入對, 儼如夫婦 (徒25:13, 23, 26:30)。

 

土西拉(Drusilla)

亞基帕一世之最幼女,其夫為巡撫非斯都,夫為人不義,保羅與他談公義時,他甚為懼怕 (徒24:24-27)。

 


 

2.猶太教派別

[這四大派是由約瑟夫作品中所描述的; 但應該還有不少其他的派別, 但以這四派較出名.

(另參 Paul's distinctiveness: --- C.The variety of sects (especially in Judea))

J. Julius Scott, Jr. "Parties in the Church of Jerusalem as Seen in Acts," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Fall 1975), pp. 217-227.

2.1 法利賽人: 重視口傳律法(傳統)--- 反對希臘化

2.2 撒都該人: 重視五經, ---- 支持希臘化

2.3 愛色尼人: 重視敬拜, 可能反聖殿祭司 --- 避開希臘化

2.4 奮銳奮人: 革命黨? ---- 反對羅馬政權

[參Josephus' biography: related to the sects: on paragraph 2]

2. Now, my father Matthias was not only eminent on account of is nobility, but had a higher commendation on account of his righteousness, and was in great reputation in Jerusalem, the greatest city we have. I was myself brought up with my brother, whose name was Matthias, for he was my own brother, by both father and mother; and I made mighty proficiency in the improvements of my learning, and appeared to have both a great memory and understanding. Moreover, when I was a child, and about fourteen years of age, I was commended by all for the love I had to learning; on which account the high priests and principal men of the city came then frequently to me together, in order to know my opinion about the accurate understanding of points of the law. And when I was about sixteen years old, I had a mind to make trim of the several sects that were among us. These sects are three: - The first is that of the Pharisees, the second that Sadducees, and the third that of the Essens, as we have frequently told you; for I thought that by this means I might choose the best, if I were once acquainted with them all; so I contented myself with hard fare, and underwent great difficulties, and went through them all. Nor did I content myself with these trials only; but when I was informed that one, whose name was Banus, lived in the desert, and used no other clothing than grew upon trees, and had no other food than what grew of its own accord, and bathed himself in cold water frequently, both by night and by day, in order to preserve his chastity, I imitated him in those things, and continued with him three years. (3) So when I had accomplished my desires, I returned back to the city, being now nineteen years old, and began to conduct myself according to the rules of the sect of the Pharisees, which is of kin to the sect of the Stoics, as the Greeks call them.

Note: (3) When Josephus here says, that from sixteen to nineteen, or for three years, he made trial of the three Jewish sects, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essens, and yet says presently, in all our copies, that he stayed besides with one particular ascetic, called Banus, with him, and this still before he was nineteen, there is little room left for his trial of the three other sects. I suppose, therefore, that for, with him, the old reading might be, with them; which is a very small emendation, and takes away the difficulty before us. Nor is Dr. Hudson's conjecture, hinted at by Mr. Hall in his preface to the Doctor's edition of Josephus, at all improbable, that this Banus, by this his description, might well be a follower of John the Baptist, and that from him Josephus might easily imbibe such notions, as afterwards prepared him to have a favorable opinion of Jesus Christ himself, who was attested to by John the Baptist.

2.1法利賽人

 

Pharisee

以現代的研究而言,有不少的問題是尚待解答的:例如:他們的歷史和習俗,和指向他們的文件的可靠性等.敬虔人(The Hasidim)的資料是十分不清晰的.他們是早期參加馬加比叛變的人,但沒有組成清晰的群體.他們的反希臘化和嚴守律法的特徵是十分明顯的.他們開始了這些堅持,但沒有繼續有組織地推動運動,以致運動沒有持續.法利賽人是後來興起的運動.他們接受口傳律法(因為這是一個詮釋)和成文的律法.強調潔淨(特別是相交之時).他們強調與不潔淨之物和之民分別出來.兄弟班(amme haarets and haberim ;conventicles, brotherhoods)雖然主張與法利賽人相近,但來源、教義和習俗與他們不同.

新約時代,最龐大及勢力最大的派別是法利賽人。他們的名字源於parosh,即「分別」的意思。他們是分離者,是猶太教中的清教徒(反希臘化,對比反世俗化),他們從任何污穢中脫離,追求完全順服口傳或成文律法的每一訓令,瑪喀比時代之後,他們即成為獨立的一群,到了主前一三五年,在猶太教中,他們的地位已非常穩固了。

他們的神學思想建立於舊約的全部經典,包括摩西律法,或五經,先知書及諸寫作。解釋上他們採取寓意解經法,以便應用律法解決新問題時有相當的彈性。他們對口傳的律法或遺傳甚為重視,且嚴格的遵守。他們相信天使及眾靈的存在及靈魂的不滅以及肉身的復活。他們實行禮儀式的禱告及禁食,並嚴謹的實行十一奉獻(太廿三23;路十一42)。他們十分小心遵守安息日,不許在安息日醫治病人,也不容許人經過麥地時,掐起麥穗來吃(太十二1∼2)。〔在安息日,潔淨之例和割禮上與新約信徒爭論.〕

雖然許多法利賽人過於注意自己對律法的順服,以致常常顯得過份的自以為義,但他們中間還是有許多是真正有德行的義人。他們並不全是假冒為善的。尼哥底母於基督在世時,曾誠懇的尋求真理,後來他與亞利馬大的約瑟共同埋葬耶穌,他也是一個法利賽人。大數的保羅曾瘋狂地逼迫教會,他自稱是法利賽人,也是法利賽人的子孫(徒廿三6),而且就律法上的「義」來說,「他是無可指摘的」(腓三6)。法利賽主義的道德與屬靈標準雖不免傾向自以為義,甚而淪於假冒為善,但與當日一般的道德情況相比,他們還是崇高的。

猶太教的諸派中,只法利賽主義存留到今日。它成為現代正統的猶太教道德、禮儀和律法的基礎。為什麼法利賽人在新約中的形象不好?

Pharisees [New Testament Parallels to the Works of Josephus]

 
 Matt 23:1
        Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples,  "The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; therefore, do whatever they teach you and follow it; but do not do as they do, for they do not practice what they teach. They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on the shoulders of others; but they themselves are unwilling to lift a finger to move them. They do all their deeds to be seen by others; for they make their tefillin broad and their tallit long. They love to have the place of honor at banquets and the best seats in the synagogues, and to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, and to have people call them rabbi. But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all students."
Lk 14:1 - 14
    On one occasion when Jesus was going to the house of a leader of the Pharisees to eat a meal on the sabbath, they were watching him closely.... He said to the one who had invited him, "When you give a luncheon or a dinner, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors; for they may invite you in return, and you would be repaid. But when you give a banquet, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, and the blind. And you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. Then you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous."
    One of the dinner guests, on hearing this, said to him, "Blessed is anyone who will eat bread in the kingdom of God!"


Antiquities 18.1.2-3 11-13 (see also War 2.8.14 162-166 and Ant. 13.171-173)

    The Jews since antiquity have had three sects of philosophy peculiar to themselves, that of the Essenes, of the Sadducees, and the third the philosophy of those called the Pharisees; of which sects, although I have already spoken in the second book of the Jewish War, yet will I touch a little upon them now.
    Now the Pharisees simplify their way of life and give in to no sort of softness; and they follow the guidance of  what their doctrine has handed down and prescribes as good; and they earnestly strive to observe the commandments it dictates to them. They also show respect to the elders, nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing they have introduced.  Although they determine that all things are done by fate, they do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they think fit; since it has pleased God to make a combination of his council-chamber and of the people who wish to approach with their virtue and their vice. They also believe that souls have an immortal power in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments according to whether they showed virtue or vice in this life; the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but the former are allowed an easy passage through and live again. Because of these doctrines they hold great influence among the populace, and all divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices are performed according to their direction. In doing so the cities bear witness to all their virtuous conduct, both in their way of life and in their words.

Comment
          The Pharisees have a long and varied history. They became influential during the reign of the Hasmoneans and gained considerable power under Queen Alexandra. There are many references to Pharisees both in the New Testament and in Josephus, as well as in the Talmud.
        The passages quoted above demonstrate the agreement in the two works that the Pharisees believe in the resurrection of the virtuous. Moreover, we find in Luke that the key term Jesus uses, the "kingdom of God," is used by the Pharisees to mean the time after the resurrection, the World to Come. Whether Jesus means the same thing by this phrase or not is one of the open questions of scholarship. See, for example, Lk 17:20: "Once Jesus was asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God was coming, and he answered, "The kingdom of God is not coming with things that can be observed; nor will they say, 'Look here it is!' or 'There it is!' For, in fact, the kingdom of God is among you."
    In agreement also is the dependence the people had on the Pharisees to instruct them in doctrine. Jesus agrees with the majority in saying "do what they teach you and follow it."
    But Matthew's Jesus varies from Josephus in saying the Pharisees do not conduct their "way of life" as they teach it, nor do they live with complete simplicity. But note the different versions of this passage in Mark 12:38, where it is only the "scribes," and not the Pharisees, who are castigated for their love of long clothing, honors, and the best seats in the synagogues and at banquets.  (Compare this to Luke 20:46 and  11:43.)

 

2.2撒都該人(Sadducees)

根據傳統說法,撒都該人一名出自撒督(Zadok)的眾子,撒督是大衛與所羅門時代的大祭司。被擄時,撒督的眾子是當日的祭司團(代下卅一10;結四十46,四十四15,四十八11),這名稱顯然傳流到基督時,成為祭司集團的名稱。人數上他們雖不及法利賽人多,但他們擁有政治上的權力。希律統治時,他們是統治猶太人民政的教派,但他們也會因時勢,要求法利賽人一同治理。

作為猶太教中的一個派別,撒都該人堅持五經字面上的解釋,認為只有五經才是正經,比先知書及諸寫作有更高的權威。因此,在他們的思想中,法利賽人所喜歡研究的口頭遺傳完全沒有地位。撒都該人崇尚理智而反對超自然主義,他們不承認天使及諸靈的存在(徒廿三8),也不相信人的不朽(死後生命)。

按拉比的著作所說,他們常與法利賽人爭論潔淨的問題.他們的宗教是冷酷的倫理制度,而且採取嚴謹的字面解釋。按約瑟夫(他是法利賽人)所說,他們在審案時比較不重人情(猶太古史 XX. 9:1),而法利賽人在處罰上較有人情味(猶太古史XIII. 10:6.).他們比法利賽主義更容易接受希臘影響。政治上,撒都該人是機會主義者,極願與任何當權勢力聯合──只要他們能保持本身的聲譽和影響力,

耶路撒冷被毀後,他們不像法利賽人一樣生存下去。多數撒都該人是祭司,本來他們也得到羅馬政府的保護,但如今祭司制度的終結,以及羅馬政府的敵視,使這集團無法存在。按猶太史家約瑟夫所說,富人和社會上層的人支持他們,但群眾不支持他們.有部份是祭司,但不是全部,有些是普通信徒而已.

 

Sadducees

Lk 20:27 (Mk 12:18, Matt. 22:23; see also Acts 5:17, Acts 23:8)
    Some Sadducees, those who say there is no resurrection, came to him and asked him a question.

Antiquities 18.2.4 16-17  (see also War2.8.14 162-166)
    But the doctrine of the Sadducees is that souls die with the bodies. Nor do they perform any observance other than what the Law enjoins them. They think it virtuous to dispute with the teachers of the wisdom they pursue.  This doctrine is accepted but by a few, but those are of the highest standing. But they are able to accomplish almost nothing, for when they hold office they are unwillingly and by force obliged to submit to the teachings of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise tolerate them.
          Comment
              The quoted passages agree that the Sadducees do not believe in a resurrection. Otherwise, the gospels have little to say about them, usually lumping them in with the Pharisees, which perhaps indicates how little impact they had on daily life, as Josephus explains.
                 In Acts, however, Sadducees are somewhat more active. Paul takes advantage of the disagreement on the resurrection after his arrest (Acts 23:6-10), by siding with the Pharisees and creating a debate among the council, thus distracting everyone from the charge against him.

2.3愛色尼派(Essenes)

它是一個很複雜的運動 .學者查理(Charlesworth)分為四個部份:

    1. 前愛色尼派(the Proto-Essenes) (例: 早期以諾書early books of Enoch) ,
    2. 昆蘭的愛色尼派(the Qumran Essenes),
    3. 非昆蘭的愛色尼派(non-Qumran Essenes) (除昆蘭以外, 巴勒斯坦地方) ,
    4. 非愛色尼派,但有思想相關的組織 (十二列祖約書the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs; Therapeutae.)

    (但有些學者懷疑 愛色尼派(Essenes) 與 昆蘭(簡体介紹)無關.)

    愛色尼派重視聖殿敬拜和祭司。可能他們原是祭司,但不滿耶路撒冷大祭司的統治,但仍然尊重聖殿敬拜。如學者包德(Baumgarten)所斷言 “昆蘭”的人不在那地方獻祭,他們是在合適政經情況下,會去聖殿獻祭。這可能是一個尋找更好敬拜方式的運動。他們可能源自不同地方的,但有相同的基本信念.他們有互動。但可能有部份的愛色尼派人仕對社會上層有影響,以致約瑟夫也考慮加入他們。

愛色尼派(The Essenes)與法利賽人及撒都該人不同,他們的確是一個禁欲的團體。唯有願意遵守此派所定的規則,並肯接受入派儀式的,方可加入團體。他們禁止婚娶,會員的增加是藉繼承方式或接納皈信者。在他們集團中,產業是公有的,因而沒有貧富的差別。他們靠著勞動工作,自給自足。吃最簡單的食物,余閑時,常穿著白色的衣服。

在行動表現上,嚴肅而謹慎,絕不發怒或使用誓言。他們嚴格的遵守安息日,對個人的清潔,尤其重視。冒犯任何一條規條,則受到驅逐的刑罰。

神學理論上,他們正如法利賽人一樣,謹守律法並信仰超自然的存在。他們教導人靈魂是不可捉摸的,不滅的,並束縛在將滅亡的身體內。人死之後,好人到滿有陽光和涼風的地方,而壞人則被貶黜到黑暗而滿是風暴的地域,受永不止息的折磨。

愛色尼派的禁欲傾向,在許多方面與早期基督教的修道主義極為相近。他們有些教訓好像因與外邦思想的接觸而產生,因為在行為上他們很像斯多亞派。但奇怪的是福音書未曾提及他們的名字。有些作者甚至說施洗約翰及耶穌均是愛色尼派,如此基督教便是愛色尼主義的產物。雖然表面上有許多相似的地方,愛色尼派謹守律法主義,與基督教注重恩典的特質相反,不可能有關連。

 另參: Steve Mason, What Josephus Says about the Essenes in his Judean War (Part 1 , Part 2 ) : -- 他認為可能愛色尼派 (Essenes) 與 昆蘭無關. 另外可能沒有正確理解約瑟夫的看法. 可能愛色尼派有兩個不同的稱呼;一個是猶太人的叫法。

 

Revolution

Revolution occurs when government applies force to put down social unrest. The force applied, like the government that applies it, is inept and fails in its objectives. The failed use of force is a turning point that sets up the revolutionaries in power. The revolutionaries are upper class moderates who take charge of the revolutionary government. Outside pressure, mandating a "government of national salvation", and class conflict enables a lower class radical movement to overthrow the moderate upper class government and kill the upper class or drive them into exile.

The radical government suspends normal governmental procedures and protection for individuals. It implements a special police force and courts that are answerable only to the radicals. The radicals begin a reign of terror to enforce their ideology. Brinton noted that in this phase, "The little band of violent revolutionists who form the nucleus of all action during the terror behave as men have been observed to behave . . . under the influence of active religious faith." [Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of Revolution, (New York: Vintage Books, 1965), pp. 255.] This observation is especially significant in regard to the Jewish Revolt where these violent revolutionaries, Zealots, give their name to the genre of violent, unreasoning religious fanatics. The revolutionaries consume each other in the reign of terror until the revolution ends.

 

All things in common: The Essenes

 
    Matt. 10:5-14 (Mark 6:11,  Luke 9:5)
        These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: "Go nowhere among the Gentiles, and enter no town of the Samaritans, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. As you go, proclaim the good news, 'The kingdom of heaven has come near.' Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons. You received without payment; give without payment. Take no gold, or silver, or copper in your belts, no bag for your journey, or two tunics, or sandals, or a staff; for laborers deserve their food. Whatever town or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy, and stay there until you leave. As you enter the house, greet it. If the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your peace return to you. If anyone will not welcome you or listen to your words, shake off the dust from your feet as you leave that house or town."

    Acts 2:45
        All who believed were together and had all things in common; they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need.


    War 2.7.4  119-127 (see also Ant.18.2.5 18-22)

       The Essenes...are despisers of riches, and so very communal as to earn our admiration. There is no one to be found among them who has more than another; for they have a law that those who come to join them must let whatever they have be common to the whole order, so that among them all there is no appearance of either poverty or excessive wealth. Everyone's possessions are intermingled with every other's possessions; as if they were all brothers with a single patrimony...
       They have no one city, but in every city dwell many of them; and if any of the sect arrive from elsewhere, all is made available to them as if it were their own; and they go to those they have never seen before as if long acquaintances. Thus they carry nothing at all with them in their journeys, except weapons for defense against thieves. Accordingly, in every city there is one appointed specifically to take care of strangers and to provide them with garments and other necessities.
      In their clothing and deportment they resemble children in fear of their teachers. They change neither their garments nor their shoes until they are torn to pieces or worn out by time. They neither buy nor sell anything to one another, but each gives what he has to whomever needs it, and receives in exchange what he needs himself; and even if there is nothing given any return, they are allowed to take anything they want from whomever they please.

 Comment

    The Essenes are not mentioned by name in the New Testament. The similarities shown above between their organization and that of the apostles - holding possessions in common, simplicity of clothing, traveling from town to town carrying almost nothing and relying on finding welcome in a sympathetic house  -  has led scholars to theorize that Jesus had his origins in the Essenes.
    Bolstering this idea is Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. The descriptions of John's preaching in the desert and baptising in the Jordan River suggest to some scholars a connection to the Essene community on the Dead Sea. The Essenes are also thought to be the authors of many of the Dead Sea Scrolls, although not all scholars are convinced of this; in any case, the scrolls have shown many affinities to the messianic concerns of the New Testament.
 

2.4奮銳黨(Zealots)

約瑟夫所說的第四哲學學派。他們與作亂的加利利人猶大是不相關的.按學者史單(Stern)的研究,他們與後來的暗殺黨(Sicarii)是不同的.將兩者對比如下:

奮銳黨(Zealots)

暗殺黨(Sicarii)

1. 由耶路撒冷的祭司領導。

1. 起源自北方。

2. 不委身於任何皇朝。

2. 接受猶大(Judas the Galilean)皇朝。

3. 不將自己的末世盼望放在領導人身上。

3. 將自己的末世盼望放在領導人身上。

  1. 奮銳黨並不是一個宗教的團體,如法利賽人或愛色尼派一樣,他們是狂熱的民族主義者,以暴力為脫離羅馬政權轄管的途徑。
  2. 提多攻耶路撒冷時,他們是城內反叛團體之一,而他們所造成的紛亂,使耶路撒冷更快的陷落。
  3. 或許他們與使徒行傳二十一章三十八節所述的「兇徒」(Assassins)有關。
  4. 耶穌門徒之一──西門,從他名字看來,是屬於這一派的(路六15:徒一13)。所以,以福音書作書時期來看,這“奮銳黨”可能另有含意;不然,十二使徒便成了革命黨了!但歷史上,沒有因此被逼迫的記載。

Excerpts from Josephus
These excerpts are provided to give the general reader a knowledge of Josephus' writings on various subjects. I have added my own commentary to provide context. These excerpts are a work in progress and are not meant at any time to include all that Josephus has to say on a subject.
References are given in the form of Book, Chapter, and Paragraph of the Whiston edition together with the Section number of the Greek (Loeb) edition. So "Ant. 18.1.6 23" indicates Book 18, Chapter 1, Paragraph 6 in Whiston, and in the Loeb edition, Book 18, Section 23. - G. Goldberg

Causes of the War Against the Romans

The Jewish Revolt of 66 to 70 AD/CE had its origin in several different troubles identified by Josephus. At various points in his work he specifically names different events as "the" cause of the war, either as an immediate trigger or as a fundamental motive. These include:

  1. the involvement of governor Albinus with criminal gangs
  2. the removal of rights of Jews in Caesarea
  3. the pollution of the synagogue of Caesarea
  4. the murder of High Priest Jonathan
  5. the murder of High Priest Ananias
  6. the refusal to sacrifice to the Emperor
  7. the Fourth Philosophy that held divine assistance would come to a rebellion: "the infection which spread from them among the younger sort, who became zealous for it, brought the public to destruction."
  8. the criminal acts and abuse of authority on the part of governor Gessius Florus
  9. a conspiracy on the part of Florus
  10. a certain ambiguous oracle (War 6.5.4)

Judas the Galilean Founds the Revolutionary Fourth Philosophy (6 CE)

The Census of Quirinius
Description of the Fourth Philosophy

Judas the Galilean Founds the Revolutionary Fourth Philosophy (6 CE)

The Census of Quirinius (6 CE) 
Antiquities 18.1.1  3-10 
(See also War 2.8.1)  
Now Quirinius, a Roman senator..was dispatched by Caesar to be governor of  Syria, and to take an account of their property...He came into Judea, which had now been  annexed to the province of Syria, to take an account of their property, and to liquidate Archelaus's estate. Although the Jews at the beginning  took the report of a  taxation heinously, yet did they leave off any further opposition to it, by the persuasion of the high priest Joazar,  son of Beethus. So they, being convinced  by Joazar's words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. 
 
Comment  
   The census of Quirinius appears to be the same as that described by Luke in 2:2, which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem where Jesus would be born. However, if so, there is a discrepancy with the other gospel accounts that Jesus was born during the reign of Herod the Great: the census occurred in 6 CE, while Herod died in 4 BCE. Attempts to reconcile these statements have produced a large scholarly literature, to which the reader is invited to turn. 
 
Taxation is Slavery
   Yet was there one Judas, a Gaulonite of  a city whose name was Gamala, who, taking with him Sadduc, a Pharisee, threw himself into the cause of rebellion. They said that this taxation was nothing less than the beginning of slavery, and exhorted the nation to assert their liberty. If successful they would procure themselves security  for what they possessed, while if they failed they would earn honor and glory for their lofty goal. They also said that God would be assisting them to no lesser end than the furthering of their enterprise until they be successful; and this especially, if with high devotion in their hearts they would not shrink from executing whatever must be done. 
Revolutionary teachings received with pleasure
Since the people received  their words with pleasure,  this attempt to strike boldly proceeded to a great height, and so all sorts of misfortunes sprang from these men, and the nation was infected with this doctrine to a degree beyond words. 
   One violent war came upon us after another, and we lost our friends which used to alleviate our pains; there were also very great robberies and murder of our principal men. This was done in pretense indeed for the public welfare, but in reality for the hopes of gain to themselves; whence arose seditions, and from them murders of men, which sometimes fell on those of their own people, (by the madness of these men towards one another, while their desire was that none of the adverse party might be left,) and sometimes on their enemies. 
... 
    For Judas and Sadduc started a fourth philosophic school among us..This I will now describe, because the infection which spread from it among the younger sort, who became zealous for it, brought the public to destruction. 

 

Description of the Fourth Philosophy 
A. 18.1.6 23  
 
[The other three philosophies are the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, which Josephus has just discussed.] 
But of the fourth of the philosophies, Judas the Galilean was the author. This school agrees in all other things with the Pharisaic notions, except that  they have an unconquerable passion for liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. 
    They also think little of dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord. And since this immovable resolution of theirs is well known to a great many, I shall speak no further about that matter; nor am I afraid that any thing I have said of them should be disbelieved, but rather fear that what I have said inadequately conveys the resolution they show when they undergo pain. 
   And it was in the time of Gessius Florus, who was  procurator, that the nation began to grow mad with this distemper, after he occasioned the Jews to go wild with it by the abuse of his authority and to make them revolt from the Romans. 
 

 Comment  
   Josephus describes the philosophy of Judas and Sadduc in terms similar to the teachings of  Rabbis Judas and Matthias ten years earlier. In particular, they put the service of Heaven above that of earthly rulers, do not shrink from direct action, claim divine approval, stress the glory that would come to their followers even if they fail (this is also a commonplace of Greek literature), and value martyrdom. Both movements are associated with expert knowledge of the Law (the later one through its identification as a wing of the Pharisees), and are particularly attractive to the young. It's a reasonable guess that the Fourth Philosophy was influenced by the earlier teachings of the two Rabbis, and may have been simply a re-emergence of that party in more virulent form  after having been driven underground for a decade. However, Josephus denigrates the motives of Judas and Sadduc. 
   Scattered throughout the New Testament are hints that Jesus of Nazareth and his followers are associated in the minds of the populace with the radical Fourth Philosophy. The founder of the party is explicitly named in Acts 5:37, when Rabbi Gamaliel defends Peter and John:  
"After him Judas the Galilean rose up at the time of the census and got people to follow him; he also perished, and all who followed him were scattered." His point  is that there is nothing to fear from the Jesus followers, for they cannot succeed unless heaven turns out to be with them. Josephus does not relate the death of Judas, although he does report (Antiquities 20.5.2 102) that Judas' sons James and Simon were executed by procurator Alexander in about 46 CE, several years after R. Gamaliel's statement . 
   Other connections can be made. The Galilean origin of both Jesus and Judas of Gamala is one circumstantial item, together with the preaching of  a "kingdom of God" that stresses a divine ruler over an earthly one. Scholars  have pointed out that two of Jesus' apostles have appellations that relate them to the extremists. Simon is called the Zealot in Luke (6:15), which is the name that the major revolutionary faction would take during the War (his title in  Mark and Matthew, "the Cananean," appears to be derived from the untranslated Hebrew word for Zealot, perhaps a deliberate obfuscation); and Judas Iscariot is thought by some to have derived his name from the Sicarii, the terrorists prior to the war. The arrest of Jesus followed a violent insurrection in the city (Mark 15:7);  Barabbas, who would be released instead of Jesus, had been  involved. 
   But the New Testament authors emphasize that confusing Jesus with these violent revolutionaries is a mistake. The most telling distinction  is made when Jesus is asked whether the Law allowed the Jews to pay taxes to the emperor: the very issue upon which Judas the Galilean founded his party. The authors have Jesus giving an apparently peaceful answer, separating the secular and the religious realms, quite different from the revolutionary rhetoric: render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. (Mark 12:17).  Whether Jesus truly said this or not is a matter of debate among secular scholars. 
   Finally, I note that Josephus reports the  teachings of Jesus the Galilean are received with pleasure by the people. A very similar phrase occurs in the reception of Jesus by the people in Josephus' famous paragraph, the Testimonium Flavianum. Compare: 
 
(Antiquities 18.3.4 63) 
teacher of people who with pleasure received the truth   
didaskolos anthroponton hedone talethe dechomenon 

(Antiquities 18.1.1 6) 
for with pleasure hearing  the words responded the people 
hedone gar ten akroasin hon legoien edechonto ho anthropoi 

Does this similar phrasing indicate Josephus conflates in his mind the teachings of Jesus of Nazereth with those of Judas the Galilean? As pointed out in the article on the Testimonium found on this web site, the word "truth"  has no support as authentic, so there may well have been something less approving here, e.g., "the unusual" (as suggested by Thackeray). Or is it just that the two passages were probably composed about the same time, as only 57 sections separate them?