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思想方式 c:\Cwin\books\ArtThink.doc

Harrison, Allen F. and Bramson, Robert M., Ph.D.

The Art of Thinking: Strategies for Asking Questions, Making Decisions, and Solving Problems.

New York: Berkley Books, 1984.

They propose that there are five Styles of Thinking: namely, Synthesists, Idealists, Pragmatists, Analysts, and Realists.







How to know

When you see one


Grand Strategy

The Dialectic

Assimilative Thinking

Contingency Approach

Search for the One Best Way

Empirical Discovery

Strategy # 1

Open Argument & Confrontation

Focus on the Whole

Moving one step at a Time

Systematic Analysis of Alternatives

Setting Hard Objectives

Strategy # 2

Asking Dumb-Smart Questions

The Long-Range View

Experiment & Innovation

The Search for More Data

The Resource Inventory

Strategy # 3

Participating from the Sidelines

Setting Goals & Standards

Looking for Quick Payoff

Conservative Focusing

Getting to Specifics

Strategy # 4

Suspending Opposing Ideas

Receptive Listening

Tactical Thinking

Charting the Situation


Strategy # 5

Speculation & Fantasy

Search for Aids to Agreement

The Marketing Approach

Constructive Nit-picking

Using Expert Opinion

Strategy # 6

Proposing "Far-Out" Solutions

Humanizing the Argument

Contingency Planning

Deductive Reasoning

Incisive Correction

Strategy # 7

Negative Analysis





Strength & Liabilities

produces unusual solutions to problems, but attract to strange things

Commit to a certain method & approach & a set of basic values


Frequency: IA>AR>SI>IR>PR>IP>AP>AS>SP>SR>"Three-Way" Thinker (2%)


Synthesist (S)

Idealist (I)

Pragmatist (P)

Analyst (A)

Realist (R)

Synthesist (S)


SI: p.89 oppose AR Speculative, process-oriented, interested in "Whys" of things. Need admired by others

SP: p.96 adaptive, dialectic , eclectic, conflict-oriented

AS: p.94

SR: p.96

Idealist (I)



IP: p.92 pragmatic, high standards & goals, high concern for people issues.

IA: p.86 broad, future-oriented, comprehensive, planned view of things.

Mostly design engineers.

IR: p.90 Receptive & immediately helpful; get things done quick & good. Mostly nurses. Practical, concrete, and immediate. Overcommitted to help others & resentful if not acknowledged by them.

Pragmatist (P)



AP: p.93

PR: p.91

Analyst (A)



AR: p.87 highly task-oriented & objective

Realist (R)



Strategies to influence specific type of thinkers (your target is a ….)


Synthesist (S)

Idealist (I)

Pragmatist (P)

Analyst (A)

Realist (R)

Their characteristics

The Medium is the Message

supportiveness & receptivity

Don’t knock opportunity



Strategy # 1

The Cajoling Specific

“Can you help me with My Problem?”

Bargain, Always Bargain

Learn to Love the Great Stone Face

Go to the Point, Quickly

Strategy # 2

“Don’t Bother Me with Facts”

Appeal to High Standards

Let ‘Em Be Likeable

Do your Homework

Be Concise

Strategy # 3

Fighting Can be Fun

“Keep in touch”

Pick Up on the “messages”

Be logical, Be Orderly

“Firm but Fair”

Strategy # 4

“Which Way Did it Go?”

Help them Not to Be Nice

Take a Marketing Stance

Let them Data You to Death

Encourage Appropriation

Strategy # 5

Seriously, Play Around a Lot

Avoid Conflict Like the Plague!

The Win-Win Compromise

Look for the Theory

Give Control

Strategy # 6


Incisive Correction

Strategy # 7