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思想方式 c:\Cwin\books\ArtThink.doc

Harrison, Allen F. and Bramson, Robert M., Ph.D.

The Art of Thinking: Strategies for Asking Questions, Making Decisions, and Solving Problems.

New York: Berkley Books, 1984.

They propose that there are five Styles of Thinking: namely, Synthesists, Idealists, Pragmatists, Analysts, and Realists.

 

Synthesist

Idealist

Pragmatist

Analyst

Realist

How to know

When you see one

         

Grand Strategy

The Dialectic

Assimilative Thinking

Contingency Approach

Search for the One Best Way

Empirical Discovery

Strategy # 1

Open Argument & Confrontation

Focus on the Whole

Moving one step at a Time

Systematic Analysis of Alternatives

Setting Hard Objectives

Strategy # 2

Asking Dumb-Smart Questions

The Long-Range View

Experiment & Innovation

The Search for More Data

The Resource Inventory

Strategy # 3

Participating from the Sidelines

Setting Goals & Standards

Looking for Quick Payoff

Conservative Focusing

Getting to Specifics

Strategy # 4

Suspending Opposing Ideas

Receptive Listening

Tactical Thinking

Charting the Situation

Simplification

Strategy # 5

Speculation & Fantasy

Search for Aids to Agreement

The Marketing Approach

Constructive Nit-picking

Using Expert Opinion

Strategy # 6

Proposing "Far-Out" Solutions

Humanizing the Argument

Contingency Planning

Deductive Reasoning

Incisive Correction

Strategy # 7

Negative Analysis

 

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p.6p.9f

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Strength & Liabilities

produces unusual solutions to problems, but attract to strange things

Commit to a certain method & approach & a set of basic values

     

Frequency: IA>AR>SI>IR>PR>IP>AP>AS>SP>SR>"Three-Way" Thinker (2%)

 

Synthesist (S)

Idealist (I)

Pragmatist (P)

Analyst (A)

Realist (R)

Synthesist (S)

--------------------

SI: p.89 oppose AR Speculative, process-oriented, interested in "Whys" of things. Need admired by others

SP: p.96 adaptive, dialectic , eclectic, conflict-oriented

AS: p.94

SR: p.96

Idealist (I)

 

--------------------

IP: p.92 pragmatic, high standards & goals, high concern for people issues.

IA: p.86 broad, future-oriented, comprehensive, planned view of things.

Mostly design engineers.

IR: p.90 Receptive & immediately helpful; get things done quick & good. Mostly nurses. Practical, concrete, and immediate. Overcommitted to help others & resentful if not acknowledged by them.

Pragmatist (P)

   

--------------------

AP: p.93

PR: p.91

Analyst (A)

     

--------------------

AR: p.87 highly task-oriented & objective

Realist (R)

       

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Strategies to influence specific type of thinkers (your target is a ….)

 

Synthesist (S)

Idealist (I)

Pragmatist (P)

Analyst (A)

Realist (R)

Their characteristics

The Medium is the Message

supportiveness & receptivity

Don’t knock opportunity

reasons

 

Strategy # 1

The Cajoling Specific

“Can you help me with My Problem?”

Bargain, Always Bargain

Learn to Love the Great Stone Face

Go to the Point, Quickly

Strategy # 2

“Don’t Bother Me with Facts”

Appeal to High Standards

Let ‘Em Be Likeable

Do your Homework

Be Concise

Strategy # 3

Fighting Can be Fun

“Keep in touch”

Pick Up on the “messages”

Be logical, Be Orderly

“Firm but Fair”

Strategy # 4

“Which Way Did it Go?”

Help them Not to Be Nice

Take a Marketing Stance

Let them Data You to Death

Encourage Appropriation

Strategy # 5

Seriously, Play Around a Lot

Avoid Conflict Like the Plague!

The Win-Win Compromise

Look for the Theory

Give Control

Strategy # 6

       

Incisive Correction

Strategy # 7

       

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