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Paul
Jesus
NT introduction
Galatians

Since I am teaching two courses

1. Jesus' life, and

2. New Testament Introduction.

I will update these two courses information weekly. (But the courses materials are in Chinese, while the course outline will link to some English materials.)

Paul (Please click on the books / articles' links to reach the detailed information.)

1. Fitzmyer, J., "Paul," NJBC, 1329-1337

2. Bornkamm, G. Paul (1971)

3. Stendahl, K. Paul Among Jews and Gentiles (1976)

4. Sanders, E.P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism: a Comparison of Patterns of Religion. (1977)

5. Beker J.C. Paul the Apostle (1980), 3-181

6. Dunn, J. Theology of Paul the Apostle (1998)

7. Hengel, M. & Schwemer, A.M., Paul Between Damascus and Antioch (1997), 178-310

 

Other Related Studies on Paul

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Detailed Information ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1. Fitzmyer, J., "Paul," NJBC, 1329-1337

2. Bornkamm, G. Paul (1971)

3. Stendahl, K. Paul Among Jews and Gentiles (1976)

The essay , "Paul Among Jews and Gentiles," is based on the Thomas White Currie Lectures in 1963. Under this title, he advocates 6 ideas:

  1. Paul lived his life among Jews and Gentiles (p.1f).
  2. Paul took his experience on the Damascus Road as a "Call Rather Than Conversion" (p.7f).
  3. "Justfication Rather Than Forgiveness" is widely used in Paul's writing (p.23f).
  4. It is in "Weakness Rather Than sin" where Paul's experience intersects with his apostolic mission and his understanding of the faith (p.40f).
  5. In "Love Rather Than Integrity" (p.53).
  6. "Unique Rather Than Universal"

Three more essays are contained in this book:

4. Sanders, E.P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism: a Comparison of Patterns of Religion. (1977)

This book is the watershed on the interpretation of Pauline Theology. This perspective later advocated and modified by James Dunn has been called "the New Perspective." In this book, Sanders has proposed that Paul is in conflict with Judaism which holds covenantal nomism, not legalism as we asssumed. Firstly, Sanders reconstruct the Palestinian Judaism from Tannaitic literature, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and selected five books from Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (Ben Sirach , 1 Enoch, Jubilees, The Psalms of Solomon, IV Ezra.) Then he coined the term 'covenantal nomism' as the common pattern of religion in Judaism in this time, which includes these features: (quoted from p. 422.)

  1. God has chosen Israel and
  2. given the law. The law implies both
  3. God's promise to mainteain the election and
  4. the requirement to obey.
  5. God rewards obedience and punishes transgression .
  6. The law provides for means of atonement, and atonement results in
  7. maintenance or re-establishment of the covenantal relationship.
  8. All thosewho are maintained in covenant by obedience, atonement and Gods' mercy belong to the group which will be saved.

An important interpretation of the first and the last points is that election and ultimately salvation are considered to be by God's mercy rather than human achievement.

The second half on the book analyze Paul's position and advocates that Paul holds similar understanding. It is widely accepted that Paul is criticizing the Judaism as a religion of legalistic works-righteousness. But Sanders proposes that it is not the heart of Pauls' critique (p.550.) Obedience to the law is a good thing, but is faulted if this threaten the exclusiveness of salvation by faith in Christ.

"Paul in fact explicitly denies that the Jewish covenant can be effective for salvation, thus consciously denying the basis of Judaism." ..."the covenantal promises to Abraham do not apply to his descendants, but to Christians. ....It is thus not first of all against the means of being properly religious which are appropriate to Judaism that Paul polemicizes ("by works of law'), but against the prior fundamentals of Judaism: the election, the covenant and the law; and it is because these are wrong that the means appropriate to 'righeousness according to the lwas' (Torah observance and repentance) are held to be wrong or are not mentioned. (quoted from pp.551-2).

 

Related Study:

  1. Summary & Responses on New Perspective: In Chinese (對新角度的描述及回應: 中文)
  2. Paul's Page devoted to New Perspective (Introduction and Responses are included; links to internet sources.)
  3. Analysis on Paul's background: Paul and his Contemporary Judaism: Pauline's distinctiveness (abstract & Table of Content) (New: optimized file!) 保羅時代的猶太人是怎樣的 與 保羅的獨特別性 (扼要和大綱)

5. Beker J.C. Paul the Apostle (1980), 3-181

This book argued that the nature of Paul's theological thinking is characterized by two fundatmental features: the contingent particularity of his hermeneutic (Part two of this book) and his sure grasp of the coherent center of the gospel (Part Three of this book.) The Part one is introduction and the the Part Four is the conclusion (p.351ff.).

Related Study:The Theological Center of Pauline Theology (In Chinese)

 

6. Dunn, J. Theology of Paul the Apostle (1998)

7. Hengel, M. & Schwemer, A.M., Paul Between Damascus and Antioch (1997), 178-310

 

 

Other Related Studies

  1. 保羅書信的社會學研究 (近代研究扼要和回應) Sociology of Pauline Epistles -- annotated bibliography & my response (in English); (扼要 summary)
  2. Beker, J. Christiaan. The Triumph of God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

    Thesis: "...for Paul, the Christ-event is proleptic of the coming, cosmic triumph of God." (backcover) 他有兩個基本論點: (1)連貫(Coherence) 與機遇(Contingency)是互動(interact)地出現。(2)保羅的福音是有末世特徵的。 [參x 頁, i.e. p.x]

© Philip Yim Kwok Hung