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新約先知簡介

參考書:

David E. Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and The Ancient Mediterranean World. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983).

Richard A. Horsley, 有很多關於新約假先知,假救主的研究....

Horsley, RA. "Ancient Jewish Banditry and the Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66-70," CBQ, 43, 1981, pp.409-432.

Horsley, RA. "Popular Messianic Movements at the Time of Jesus," CBQ, 46: 1984, pp.471-495.

Horsley, RA. ` "Like one of the Prophets of Old". Two Types of Popular Prophets at the Time of Jesus,' CBQ, 47: 1985, pp.435-463.

Horsley, RA. "Menahem in Jerusalem A Brief Messianic episode among the Sicarii -- not 'Zealot Messianism'," Novum Testamentum, XXVII, 4 (1985), pp.334-348.

Horsley, RA. "The Zealots. Their Origin, Relationship and Importance in the Jewish Revolt," Novum Testamentum, Vol. XXVIII Fasc. 2 April 1986, pp.159-192.

Horsley, RA. and Hanson, J.S. Bandits, Prophets and Messiahs. Minneapolis: Harper & Row, 1985.

Horsley, RA. "Popular Prophetic Movements at the time of Jesus their Principal Features and Social Origins," JSNT, (1986), pp.3-27.

Horsley, RA. Jesus and The Spiral of Violence: Popular Jewish Resistance in Roman Palestine. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987.

Horsley, RA. Sociology and the Jesus Movement. N.Y.: Crossword, 1989.

 

引言:以往的人以為舊約先知之後,四百年內沒有先知,然後新約才先知。但其實兩約中間的「啟示文學」是先知文學的延續。而新約之前也有先知現象。而新約時不單有耶穌、使徒、早期基督徒先知、更有不少同代的真假先知。

內容大綱

早期基督徒預言的特色

  1. 分辨先知和他們的宣講
  1. 早期基督教的預言的爭論
  2. 保羅對先知和他們的宣講之分辨
  3. 解除假先知的「神秘面紗」
  1. 太7:15-23
  2. 約壹4:1-3
  3. 十二使徒遺訓11-12
  4. 黑馬牧人書11 (Hermas Mand. xi)
  5. 多馬行傳79 (Acts of Thomas)
  6. 扼要

II. 基督徒先知的類別

III. 現代先知反省

 

 

詳細內容

早期基督徒預言的特色

 

  1. 分辨先知和他們的宣講

按照舊約的教導﹐凡先知皆要試驗。但一般來說﹐聽眾只會在聽到兩個或以上的矛盾之預言才需要辨別真假先知。特別是當先知的信息與與一些宗教或政治領袖的看法不同的。

 

  1. 早期基督教的預言的爭論

在啟2:20-24反映使徒約翰面對一個假先知「耶洗別」。她被形容為「引誘他們行姦淫,喫祭偶像之物」。因為整間教會被責是「容讓」她,可能她正影響教會指責約翰為假先知。另外﹐在啟2:14-15使徒約翰稱假先知之道理為「巴蘭的教訓」。

在新約以外﹐第一個清楚的提及先知間的爭論是在黑馬牧人書第十一章(Hermas Mand. xi.)。黑馬認為真先知會在大堂崇拜時向會眾說預言。而假先知只會私下向求問者說預言﹐而且常是要收費的。黑馬批評他們是異教徒和道德淪落者。他們是藉魔鬼的靈說預言。


  1. 保羅對先知和他們的宣講之分辨

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保羅曾論到分辨真假先知(帖前5:19-22; 林前12:10; 14:29)。這些經文反映當時先知要受到基督徒群體的控制。一連用了五個命令句﹔而第四和第五句是第三句的擴展﹐結果只有三個主要結構。

5:19不要消滅聖靈的感動 (不要禁止聖靈藉先知彰顯自己)

5:20不要藐視先知的講論

5:21但要凡事察驗, (要察驗是屬神抑或是屬鬼的)

善美的要持守

5:22各樣的惡事要禁戒不作 (對好的遵守; 惡的不要信!)

有幾個特點要留意: 

  1. 這堿O全會眾一起察驗; 不是少數人(林前12:10; 14:29)。
  2. 察驗過程與屬靈恩賜無關, 而是基於教會的信仰和習慣。
  3. 這個察驗過程不像是常用於崇拜預言中。
  4. 除了神的靈沒有提及其他靈體的工作。

在帖後2:1-2﹐保羅反對「有靈有言語」的﹐可能正是假先知的預言。保羅要求教會信徒以他的教訓為基準。他也沒有指是邪靈工作。

2:1弟兄們,論到我們主耶穌基督降臨,和我們到祂那婸E集。

2:2我勸你們無論有靈有言語,有冒我名的書信,說主的日子現在(就)到了,不要輕易動心,也不要驚慌。

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C. 解除假先知的「神秘面紗」

  1. 太7:15-23
  2. 如將15-20和21-23放在一起, 15節可能是指一些馬太所反對的基督徒先知。耶穌教訓中反映出他們的果子會顯出真假(太12:33; 路6:43-44)。這些先知很可能是巡行各地的(itinerants)。羊皮可能是表示一些獨特的先知服裝,而仿傚施洗約翰。21-23節中指出他們是『作惡的人(直譯為: 行不法行為的人)』。他們可能是奉主名作預言,趕鬼,行奇事的。在馬太福音另兩段經文中反映假先知是代表末世敵對神的勢力。這些末世的形象可能是指到當代的人物(像約壹2:18-19; 4:1-3) 。

    誰是馬太所反對的假先知呢? 他們不是靈智派(Gnostics)、法利賽人、奮銳黨﹔而是一些基督徒。這些假先知是「反律法主義」(antinomians: 可能包括保羅主義者Paulinists )。但因為沒有律法(anomia; lawlessness)是那不能行出天父的旨意(7:21)。因此不能判別是指何人。而且不是反對他們的教訓而是他們言行不一。

  3. 約壹4:1-3
  4. 這書是在第一世紀末寫成的。『靈』是指『謬妄的靈』(約翰一書4:6),而它是藉著假先知的宣講工作(約翰一書4:1)。要試驗他們宣講內容: 『凡靈認耶穌基督是成了肉身來的,就是出於神的』。而且『因為世上有許多假先知已經出來了』﹐很可能也是遊行先知。他們被稱為『敵基督』(約翰一書2:19; 2:18-25)﹐很可能是與基督徒群體分割的。

  5. 十二使徒遺訓11-12 (Didache; 簡寫 Did.)
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它是在第一世紀末和第二世紀初寫成。反映在敘利亞和巴勒斯坦的在農村的小型基督徒群體。他們要試驗一切到來的使徒、先知、教師和平信徒。

對象

試驗方法

出處

出處

教師

教導必須與十二使徒遺訓相同或相配。

Did. 11:1-2

11:1 Whosoever, therefore, shall come and teach you all these things aforesaid, him do ye receive;

11:2 but if the teacher himself turn and teach another doctrine with a view to subvert you, hearken not to him; but if he come to add to your righteousness, and the knowledge of the Lord, receive him as the Lord.

使徒

留住三日以上,或接受基本食住以外之物,或要求金錢的。便是假先知。

Did. 11:3-6

11:3 But concerning the apostles and prophets, thus do ye according to the doctrine of the Gospel.

11:4 Let every apostle who cometh unto you be received as the Lord.

11:5 He will remain one day, and if it be necessary, a second; but if he remain three days, he is a false prophet.

11:6 And let the apostle when departing take nothing but bread until he arrive at his resting-place; but if he ask for money, he is a false prophet.

平信徒

不可留住三日以上,除非他們商務和支持自己的生活。沒有商務的﹐要找工作﹐懶惰是不可接受的。

Did. 12:1-5

Did. 12:1-5

先知

不要試驗憑靈說話的先知。因為『人一切的罪,都可得赦免;惟獨這罪總不得赦免。』但不是憑靈說話皆先知﹐他們必須有主的行為。從他們的行為便可知真偽。

Did. 11:7-8

11:7 And ye shall not tempt or dispute with any prophet who speaketh in the spirit; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin shall not be forgiven.

11:8 But not every one who speaketh in the spirit is a prophet, but he is so who hath the disposition of the Lord; by their dispositions they therefore shall be known, the false prophet and the prophet.

行為判別的實例: (Did. 11:9-12)

  1. 如果他憑靈要求一餐上好的美食﹔他吃了﹐他便是假先知。
  2. 如果他所教導的真理﹐他自己不實行﹐他便是假先知。
  3. 如果他憑靈要求金錢﹔除非是為了他人﹐不然不要聽從。

也就是說﹐基督徒先知必須有好榜樣﹔先知所說的預言不可用來對付他﹐除非他的行徑與群體中行為標準(community norms)相違。

 

巡行傳道人的問題 (引自CCBibleStudy)

使徒的職位沒有甚麼問題;他們是獨特的,他們的地位是毫無爭論的。不過巡行的先知卻有問題。他們的地位很容易被人利用。他們有很大的聲譽;很可能有些不良份子利用它從一處到另一處,過舒適的生活,由本地教會支付一切費用。一個機警的棍徒,可以做一個巡行的先知,過非常舒適的生活。甚至非基督徒的諷刺大家也看到這點。希臘作家路西安(Lucian)在他所著的遊記(Peregrinus)中描寫一個不用工作,最易謀生的人。他是一個巡行的大騙子,川流來往於各個不同的基督徒社體問。他喜歡在那堸扈d下來,就停留下來,享受當地招待的奢侈生活。十二使徒遺訓看到這種危險,立下了確定的規條,以應付這一個問題。規條是很長,不過它們能給早期教會生活一種鮮明活潑的光照,很有價值把它們完全寫下來。( 十二使徒遺訓十一,十二章)

所以,無論是誰來教訓你們前述的事,接受他們。如果有教師來教導另外一種教義,改變原有的教訓,不要聽他。凡能增進主的公義與知識的,像主一般的接待他。關於使徒與先知要照福音所定的,你們也要如此。不過每一個使徒到你們中間,都像主一般的接待他。他要住一天,如有需要住二天,但如果他要住三天,他是一個假先知。在使徒離開的時候,他只能帶足夠到達下一站的糧食,不准帶其他的東西,如果他要錢,他是一個假先知。每一個在靈婸﹞閮左漸知,不要嘗試效法他,也不要批評他:因為各種罪都得赦免,只有這種罪卻不得赦免。不是每一個在靈婸﹞閮左漪O先知,要視乎他有否主的行為。因此,從他們的行為就可以知道是先知還是假先知。凡先知在靈塈h咐擺設筵席的,他自己不可以喫;不然的話,他是假先知。凡先知教導真理,自己不照自己教導的去做,是假先知。……無論是誰,在靈婸﹛F給我錢,或是其他的東西,你們不要聽他;但是如果他吩咐你給錢幫助需要中的人,不可以批評他。

凡奉主名來的,都要接待,當你們在辨別他以後,你們就知道,你們有分辨左右的能力。如果來的只是一個過路人,盡量的援助他;他居留的日子不超過二天或三天,除非有其他必需的原因。如果他要居留下來,工匠就讓他工作,自己謀生。如果沒有甚麼行業,你可以為他安排,不過不要讓他閒空不作事而做基督徒。如果他不願意這樣做,他是一個基督販子:這種人要小心提防他。


Didache ; For different translations; in Greek (using EGreek Font); On Didache with Analytical Notes

Tranlation taken from this link. Introduction to Didache.

Chapter 11.

Chapter 12.


Didache in Greek : All the Greek under use EGreek Font.

-11-

1 ov an oun elqwn didaxh umav tauta panta ta proeirhmena, dexasqe auton,

2 ean de autov o didaskwn strafeiv didaskh allhn didachn eiv to katalusai, mh autou akoushte, eiv de to provqeinai dikaiosunhn kai gnwsin kuriou, dexasqe auton wv kurion.

3 peri de twn apostolwn kai profhtwn, kata to dogma tou euaggeliou outw poihsate.

4 pav de apostolov ercomenov prov umav.

5 ou menei [ei mh] hmeran mian, ean de h creia, kai thn allhn, treiv de ean meinh, yeudoprofhthv estin.

6 exercomenov de o apostolov mhden lambanetw ei mh arton, ewv ou aulisqh, ean de argurion aith, yeudoprofhthv esti.

7 kai panta profhthn lalounta en pneumati ou peirasete oude diakrineite, pasa gar amartia afeqhsetai, auth de h amartia ouk afeqhsetai.

8 ou pav de o lalwn en pneumati profhthv estin, all' ean ech touv tropouv kuriou. apo oun twn tropwn gnwsqhsetai o yeudoprofhthv kai o profhthv.

9 kai pav profhthv orizwn trapezan en pneumati, ou fagetai ap' authv, ei de mhge yeudoprofhthv esti.

10 pav de profhthv didaskwn thn alhqeian, ei a didaskei ou poiei, yeudoprofhthv esti.

11 pav de profhthv dedokimasmenov, alhqinov, poiwn eiv musthrion kosmikon ekklhsiav, mh didaskwn de poiein, osa autov poiei, ou kriqhsetai ef' umwn, meta qeou gar ecei thn krisin, wsautwv gar epoihsan kai oi arcaioi profhtai.

12 ov d' an eiph en pneumati, dov moi arguria h etera tina, ouk akousesqe autou, ean de peri allwn usterountwn eiph dounai, mhdeiv auton krinetw.


-12-

1 pav de o ercomenov prov umav en onomati kuriou decqhtw, epeita de dokimasantev auton gnwsesqe, sunesin gar ecete dexian kai aristeran.

2 ei men parodiov estin o ercomenov, bohqeite autw, oson dunasqe, ou menei de prov umav ei mh duo h treiv hmerav, ean h anagkh.

3 ei de qelei prov umav kaqhsqai, tecnithv wn, ergazesqw kai fagetw.

4 ei de ouk ecei tecnhn, kata thn sunesin umwn pronohsate, pwv mh argov meq' umwn zhsetai Cristianov.

5 ei d' ou qelei outw poiein, cristemporov esti, prosecete apo twn toioutwn.

  1. 黑馬牧人書11 (Hermas Mand. xi = 49:1 MANDATE THE ELEVENTH.)
  2. 它是第一世紀末至第二世紀中寫成的。它是很複雜的作品﹐而且有啟示文學的特徵。文体型式上﹐在Mand. xi中講到牧人(一個天使)向黑馬(Hermas)講很長的講論﹐而其中黑馬只是發出了很少問題。

    Part One - The Visions
    Part Two - The Mandates
    Part Three - The Parables
     

Mand. xi.1-6講到假先知的特徵﹐以麥丁(mantis: 意即看異象者)作為代表(xi.2)。假先知是會應信徒的求問而說預言宣講的。按牧人的分析﹐那些求問是動機不良的﹐它們出於求問者的私慾和敗壞。麥丁會向他們說他們想聽的事物。但神的靈不會作這些﹐祂是不受人控制的(xi. 5)。另外先知的真偽可以從其行為來判別。真先知是柔和謙卑、溫柔、遠離惡行和邪慾、不貪圖貨財和不會向求問作回應(xi. 8)。偽先知則厚顏鹵莽的、粗魯無禮的、多言的、生活奢華和向求預言者收錢。如果不付錢﹐他不會作預言。而且這些預言只會在私下(可以指有不少求問者的私人聚會)宣佈﹐不會在教會聚會中宣講

    49:1 MANDATE THE ELEVENTH.
    49:2 He shewed me men seated on a couch, and another man seated on a chair.
    49:3 And he saith to me, `Seest thou those that are seated on the couch ?`
    49:4 `I see them, Sir', say I.
    49:5 `These', saith he, `are faithful,
    49:6 but he that sitteth on the chair is a false prophet who destroyeth the mind of the servants of God-I mean, of the doubtful-minded, not of the faithful.
    49:7 These doubtful-minded ones then come to him as to a soothsayer and enquire of him what shall befall them.
    49:8 And he, the false prophet, having no power of a divine Spirit in himself, speaketh with them according to their enquiries [and according to the lusts of their wickedness],
    49:9 and filleth their souls as they themselves wish.
    49:10 For being empty himself he giveth empty answers to empty enquirers;
    49:11 for whatever enquiry may be made of him, he answereth according to the emptiness of the man.
    49:12 But he speaketh also some true words for the devil filleth him with his own spirit, if so be he shall be able to break down some of the righteous.
    49:13 So many therefore as are strong in the faith of the Lord, clothed with the truth, cleave not to such spirits, but hold aloof from them;
    49:14 but as many as are doubters and frequently change their minds, practise soothsaying like the Gentiles, and bring upon themselves greater sin by their idolatries.
    49:15 For he that consulteth a false prophet on any matter is an idolater and emptied of the truth, and senseless.
    49:16 For no Spirit given of God needeth to be consulted;
    49:17 but, having the power of deity, speaketh all things of itself, because it is from above, even from the power of the divine Spirit.
    49:18 But the spirit which is consulted, and speaketh according to the desires of men, is earthly and fickle, having no power;
    49:19 and it speaketh not at all, unless it be consulted'.
    49:20 ` How then, Sir', say I, ` shall a man know who of them is a prophet, and who a false prophet'?
    49:21 `Hear', saith he, `concerning both the prophets;
    49:22 and, as I shall tell thee, so shalt thou test the prophet and the false prophet.
    49:23 By his life test the man that hath the divine Spirit.
    49:24 In the first place, he that hath the [divine] Spirit, which is from above,
    49:25 is gentle and tranquil and humble-minded,
    49:26 and abstaineth from all wickedness and vain desire of this present world,
    49:27 and holdeth himself inferior to all men, and giveth no answer to any man when enquired of, nor speaketh in solitude (for neither doth the Holy Spirit speak when a man wisheth Him to speak);
    49:28 but the man speaketh then when God wisheth him to speak.
    49:29 When then the man who hath the divine Spirit cometh into an assembly of righteous men, who have faith in a divine Spirit,
    49:30 and intercession is made to God by the gathering of those men,
    49:31 then the angel of the prophetic spirit, who is attached to him, filleth the man, and the man, being filled with the Holy Spirit, speaketh to the multitude, according as the Lord willeth.
    49:32 In this way then the Spirit of the deity shall be manifest.
    49:33 `This then is the greatness of the power as touching the Spirit of the deity of the Lord.
    49:34 Hear now', saith he, `concerning the earthly and vain spirit, which hath no power but is foolish.
    49:35 In, the first place, that man who seemeth to have a spirit exalteth himself,
    49:36 and desireth to have a chief place,
    49:37 and straight-way he is impudent and shameless and talkative and conversant in many luxuries and in many other deceits, and receiveth money for his prophesying, and if he receiveth not, he prophesieth not.
    49:38 Now can a divine Spirit receive money and prophesy?
    49:39 It is not possible for a prophet of God to do this, but the spirit of such prophets is earthly.
    49:40 In the next place, it never approacheth an assembly of righteous men;
    49:41 but avoideth them, and cleaveth to the doubtful-minded and empty,
    49:42 and prophesieth to them in corners, and deceiveth them, speaking all things in emptiness to gratify their desires;
    49:43 for they too are empty whom it answereth.
    49:44 For the empty vessel placed together with the empty is not broken, but they agree one with the other.
    49:45 But when he comes into an assembly full of righteous men who have a Spirit of deity,
    49:46 and intercession is made from them,
    49:47 that man is emptied, an(l the earthly spirit fleeth from him, in fear, and that man is struck dumb and is altogether broken in pieces, being unable to utter a word.
    49:48 For, if you pack wine or oil into a closet, and place an empty vessel among them, and again desire to unpack the closet,
    49:49 the vessel which you placed there empty, empty in like manner you will find it.
    49:50 Thus also the empty prophets, whenever they come unto the spirits of righteous men, are found just such as they came.
    49:51 I have given thee the life of both kinds of prophets.
    49:52 Therefore test, by his life and his works, the man who says that he is moved by the Spirit.
    49:53 But do thou trust the Spirit that cometh from God, and hath power;
    49:54 but in the earthly and empty spirit put no trust at all;
    49:55 for in it there is no power, for it cometh from the devil.
    49:56 Listen [then] to the parable which I shall tell thee.
    49:57 Take a stone, and throw it up to heaven-see if thou canst reach it;
    49:58 or again, take a squirt of water, and squirt it up to heaven-see if thou canst bore through the heaven'.
    49:59 ` How, Sir', say I, `can these things be?
    49:60 For both these things which thou hast mentioned are beyond our power'.
    49:61 `Well then', saith he, `just as these things are beyond our power, so likewise the earthly spirits have no power and are feeble.
    49:62 Now take the power which cometh from above.
    49:63 The hail is a very small grain, and yet, when it falleth on a man's head, what pain it causeth! Or again, take a drop which falls on the ground from the tiles, and bores through the stone.

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5. 多馬行傳79 (Acts of Thomas)

    這是一篇用教導体(diatribe)寫成,攻擊假使徒和假先知的文章。文中一隻驢得了說話的能力之後說出:

    『假使徒和不法的先知將會來。他們必按自己的行為受當得的結局。他們教導人要遠離不潔﹐但他們自己卻常在罪中﹔他們外面穿著羊皮﹐堶惚o是惡狼。他們不能滿足於一位妻子﹐他們卻敗壞很多婦女﹔他們輕視兒童和敗壞他們的生命。他們不滿足於自己的財產﹐要求獻上一切有用的東西給他們。但他們竟自稱為祂(基督)的門徒。他們口是心非。勸人遠離惡事﹐自己卻沒有行善。人以為他們是有節制和勸人淫行、偷竊和貪婪的。雖然他們教導人不要行這些事﹐但私底下他們卻行這些事。』

    這些形容可能暗指馬太 7:15 --「你們要防備假先知。他們到你們這裡來,外面披著羊皮,裡面卻是殘暴的狼。

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6. 扼要

先知的真假是要基於三個基準﹕先知的行為、教導 和 先知慣例。

基準

初期教會

現代香港教會

先知的行為

道德操守必須高﹔並實行出來

中國人重倫理﹔而且一個人行為出錯﹐別人對他所傳的也不信。靈性和名聲要好。

先知的教導

重視純正的教義

核心教義相同﹔但因歷史和宗教特徵而有不同。用神學院為主幹

先知的慣例

基督徒對先知的期望:

不會因求問回答;不會私下宣講;不會為錢說預言。

信徒和社會人仕皆對傳道人和牧者有特別的期望。例:不貪財色﹐為人犧牲自己﹐有愛心等。

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II.基督徒先知的類別

早期基督徒先知預言可以有很多不同的表達方式(包括承襲猶太教和希羅宗教的形式和自定特有的形式)。它沒有一個固定的主流形式。因此,可能此時尚未有一個穩定和結構化的組織來判別(對比撒母耳的先知學校;當代的使徒會議;現代的神學院)。預言的形式並不像舊約先知般有一個特有的「先知預言格式」(form of prophetic speech)。

 

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III. 現代先知反省

  1. 先知的行為: 真先知可變質。 (指神學院畢業生)
  1. 十年計劃, 離婚另娶。
  2. 事奉變質: 懶惰、貪名利(巴蘭先知)色、貪愛世界(提後4:10)、形勢(亞倫)、其他(馬可)
  1. 先知的教義:
  1. 交鬼: 例: 神的兒女的教主, 原本是一個敬畏神的傳道, 後交鬼後, 變質。
  2. 神學院半途被開除, 有些出了極端信仰。

C. 先知的慣例: 不忠心的事奉

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