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<<社 會 學 與 新 約 研 究>> 課 程 扼 要

(以下的資料是嚴先生在信義宗神學進修時,宋內思教授講稿的中文譯本;加上嚴先生個人的參考資料)

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引 論: 社 會 學 與 新 約 研 究

專 題: 怎樣理解早期教會使用的家庭字彙呢﹖----家庭式生活是教會日常生活。

方法論簡介

引 言: 回教國家信主後的困難。

新家庭: 早期教會信主後的困難。(家庭困難) --> 需要「新家庭」

1) 古代家庭 -- 綜覽 (家庭提供甚麼﹖)

2) 字 彙: 新約中的家庭字彙。(初信者遇上一個使用家庭字彙的群体)

3) 基督徒怎樣生活對比古代的家庭 (How Christians live together, compared with Antiquity family.)

論 證 1: 早期教會 的 社會背景: 家庭。(家庭教會)

論 證 2: 家庭字彙 的 作用: 鼓勵家庭式的關懷。

論 證 3: 弟兄生活 的 例子:(The Philadelphia Way of Life in the Early Church)

論 證 4: 外 人 的 看法: 作為Control。

 

 


引 論: 社 會 學 與 新 約 研 究

參考書:

D.Tidball, An Introduction to the Sociology of the New Testament Pater Noster Press, 1983.
Carolyn Osiek, What are they saying about the social setting the NT﹖ NY & Ramsey, NJ. 1984 [H p.19]

社會學非新約研究的新方法。Form-criticism,
....................>福音書作者 (福音書)
Form-criticism Redaction Criticism Structuralistic exegesis
(life-settings) (Theology)
Sitz im Leben

The dominance of idealism in NT studies: Church concerns ideas ONLY!
C.f. Social context <--> theology (metaphor: body & soul)
e.g. 1 Cor. 11 Communion Conflict !
註1: R. Alsatair Campbell, Does Paul Acquiesce in Divisions at the Lord's Supper? Novum Testamentum Vol XXXIII Jan 1991 Fasc. 1. pp.61-70.
According to the author, G. Theissen rightly drew attention to the inequality of menu.(1 Cor 11:21) to idion deipnon = meals of a higher quality to serve the well- to-do while the well-off guests get more meagre rations.
But v.19 is taken by commentaries as Paul's expectation that in last days there would be divisions. However,Campbell suggests a NEW explanation [p.70] "For there actually has to be discrimination in your meetings, so that if you please (free translation)the elite may stand out from the rest. "
Other reference: T. Engberg-Pedersen " The gospel & Social practice according to 1 Cor. " NTS Vol. 33(1987) 557-584.
It casts doubts on concept of " love-patriarchalism ".

註: W.A.Meeks, The First Urban Christians, The Social World of the Apostle Paul, 1983.

另參c:\suncours\socio&nt\malberbe.not

Women position in the church. (Culture & Personal experience affect it.)
Like Christian had minds & spirts unconnected with their individual & corporate bodies. [H p.63] Other Ref: Robin Scroggs NTS 26,1980, 164-179 esp 165-9.

2 Levels of sociological approach [H p4]
註: This classification is according to Philip J. Richter.

1) 前社會學(Proto-sociology / Social History):

According to Jonathan Z.Smith : This is divided into 3 different kinds, namely,
a) Social realia found in Christian writing & contemporary materials
b) Social organization of Christianty
c) Social history
N.B. This is social description, using ordinary historical method.

References:

J.Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus, An Investigation into Economic and Social Conditions of Jerusalem during the NT period (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969) N.B: Women Position in p.359f & Part Three on Social Status p.147f.

M.Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, Studies in their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period (London: SCM, 1974) Vol I & II {信神296 H387 V.1&2}
Outline of Vol. I [& Vol II contains footnotes only.]
I. Hellenism as a political & enconomic force ==> secular force in Palestine.
II. Hellenism as a culturcal -->influence Jews ==> Hellenistic Judaism.
III. Encounter & conflicts ===> Palestinian Jeudaism between Reception and Repudication of Hellenism.
IV. Reform Attempt ==> its failure & far-reaching consequences of Jewish Counter-reaction

A.J.Malherbe, Social Aspects of Early Christianty (1977)

G.Theisssen, Sociology of the Jesus Movement

2) 社會學解釋(Sociological explanation)
Definition: " to explain a particular problem or suggest links between apparently unrelated data in the same or different sources" (by Richter [H p.5])

Ref: J.G.Gager, Kingdom and Community, The Social World of Early Christianty, 1975 - applying theories from social sciences. Delayed parousia causes Mission.

Is historical sociology possible at all﹖
Some Problems:
* Evidence nature: faith documents.
* Culture difference.
* Can't test a hypothesis.
eg. Max Weber's work on Ancient Judaism (assumptions).
1) Historical : Jews now = Jews before.

2) Cultural : Ancient Israel = Indian Society & caste order.
3) Data : OT is subset of all contemporary literature ->similiar nature

Use Social-anthropological models
Sociological analysis is a legitimate continuation and a deepening of historical research.
There is no single "sociological method" - a methodological pluralism.[H 16-7]
N.B. Aim of NT Sociology :
Event (special life situation) ---> Interpretation (Typical daily life)

Sociology and Theology
Reductionalism : Religion is nothing but a social phenomena.
Sociology and Theology represent a partial understanding of the whole reality.

Introductory information can be read in Wlater F. Taylor, Jr " Socialogical Exegesis : Int. to a New Way to Study the Bible. Part II " Trinity Seminary Review Vol 12, Num 1 Spr 1990. pp.26-42.

例子1: 前社會學(Proto-sociology): 早期信徒的社會階層

舊的共識(The old concensus)
新的共識(The new concensus)
--- 基督教是奴僕的宗教。 --- 基督教是中產的宗教。階層非易定
Adolf Deissmann [Malherbe 8-9]The Light from East (1965 tr.)

G. Theissen : 研究 林前1:26-29

W.A.Meeks The First Urban Christians, koine Gk The Social World of the Apostle Paul

馬克斯式的思想:低下階層的改革運動 非馬克斯式的思想:中產階層的宗教運動
--- 基督教是奴僕的宗教。 --- 基督教是中產的宗教。階層非易定
1)早期教會是同類的群体。 1)早期教會是非同類的群体。
2)Celsus, Contra Celsum III 55 2)教會作品出於城市。信徒是單純的人。
3)徒4-5章 :共享所有的東西。 3)有影響力的人之支持。
  4)保羅的背景。
  5)大量的旅行和接待。
  6)書信和徒反映早期信主的人中是有錢的

Ref: W.A.Meeks, The First Urban Christians, The Social World of the Apos-
tle Paul, 1983. This reflects common opinions in NT scholars.

註3: Rankings Analysis and Response to the new consensus is found in
Holmberg, Bengt. Sociology & the NT: An Appraisal pp.225-67.
Response to New Consensus:
1. New Consensus represents Pauline churches ONLY !!
eg. poor Macedonian Christians VS well-to-do Christians (Corinth) [p.68]

2. Data is scare & meagre --> Not possible to have social history.
3. No precise definition of social class.[p.70]

例子2: 社會學解釋: 基督徒宣教工作源起 (J.G.Gager)
J.G.Gager, Kingdom and Community, The Social World of Early Christianity, 1975.
Millenarian groups' expectation applied to unfulfilled prophecy in Christians : delayed parousia causes cognitive dissonance Causes cognitive dissonance.
Solution : Mission
Comments:
1.Culture differences
2.Normal dissonance (B.F.Malina): Jews accustomed to delay.

(Plus, wrong imposition from the later periods which imatiate the former.)

例子3: 社會學解釋: 保羅的因信稱義源起 (F.Watson)

Point of departure: NT theology has to be explained from social situation in which it arosed.
Application: Mission of Early Church:
1) Judaizers: a reform-movement within Judaism;
2) Paul : a sect separated from Judaism.

Sects have 3 reaction stages:
a) denunciation -->
b) opposition -->
c) a rational/ideologicallegitimation;a secondary retinale for the separation that hasalready taken place.
Pauline church as a sect: in order to strengthen the sect he emphasizes Justification by grace. (De-Lutherize Paul) --> outdated theology.
Comments:
1. A neglect of Paul's theological identity.
2. Is Pauline Christianty simply a sect from Judaism ? (What about the Jewish Christians?)

例子4: 社會學解釋: 神學 與 早期教會生活的關係

模式1: 神學 ------> 早期教會生活
例:基督被釘 受苦榜樣 (彼前2:18-23)
耶穌受死 友情榜樣 (約15:13; 腓1-2)
基督復活 新開始: 與猶太教分離。[羅4:17 -->創造大能 : short Cranfield p.93]

模式2: 神學 <------ 早期教會生活

例: 基督徒宣教工作源起 (J.G.Gager)
例: 保羅的因信稱義源起 (F.Watson)

模式3: 神學 <-----> 早期教會生活
例: 怎樣理解早期教會使用的家庭字彙呢﹖----家庭式生活是教會日常生活。

 

<< 專 題: 怎樣理解早期教會使用的家庭字彙呢﹖ >> ----家庭式生活是教會日常生活。

方法論簡介(p.16)
引言: 回教國家信主後的困難

a) 新家庭: 早期教會信主後的困難。(家庭困難) --> 需要「新家庭」(New Converts needs a NEW family)
b) 字 彙: 新約中的家庭字彙。(初信者遇上一個使用家庭字彙的群体) (They meet a congegration with family vocabulary)

問題:Two related questions of correlations:
a) Church life: Self-presentation <---> day-to-day pattern ﹖
b) Family life: Christian mode <---> ordinary family

證據:

  1. 古代家庭 -- 綜覽 (家庭提供甚麼﹖) Family-member in Antiquity.
  2. 字 彙: 新約中的家庭字彙。(初信者遇上一個使用家庭字彙的群体) Use of family-vocabulary in NT.
  3. 基督徒怎樣生活對比古代的家庭 (How Christians live together, compared with Antiquity family.)

論 證1: 早期教會 的 社會背景: 家庭。(家庭教會)

論 證2: 家庭字彙 的 作用: 鼓勵家庭式的關懷。

論 證3: 弟兄生活 的 例子:(The Philadelphia Way of Life in the Early Church)


論 證4: 外 人 的 看法: 作為Control。

 

引 言: 回教國家信主後的困難。
1.家人朋友反應: 家人和朋友離棄他,因使他們失面子。
2.教 會的反應: 你的信主使你得到期望的嗎﹖
失望和被拒。對他懷疑,不願嫁女給他;有人信主後仍要靠
家庭,教會不理他。 在這些文化中信主會引起經濟問題。
在巴基斯坦,基督徒多數是低下階層。

註: Seppo Syrjanen p.201f (Finnish scholar & missionary)
A.Period of Awareness
1.Moderning Society --> Lose of absoluteness eg prophet Muhammad.
2.Ethnic identity ---> Christianty as the religion of low-caste people.
B.Period of Decision
1.Meaning: Supernatural experience as proof.
2.Identity: Affective identification with a Christian.
C.Period of Intergration
Identity is predominant.

早期教會的情況:
太10章 和 C.Cels. III 55 Tertullian 說信徒竟被父母和兄弟出賣!!
Clement's description of the situation.

<< Question: What impression, if any, did this challenge made on the congregation's self-image﹖Did the family conflicts affect Early Christian ecclesiology and the day-to-day life of the Church ﹖ (oikos 家)

甚麼是歸信呢﹖(Conversion) :
註:Seppo Syrjanen p.33 Rambo's ideas : Sandnes:

1) Tradition Transition

+=======+ ┌──┐ 3)From one framework
| Islam |--->│Christianty│ to another (diff)
+=======+ └──┘

2) Institutioanl Transition

┌──────┐ 2)Within the same Christian framework
│□ ---> □ │
└──────┘
3) Affiliation

┌──────┐ 3)
不委身 ---> 強烈委身 │
└──────┘
4) Deffection

┌──────┐ 3)
│ 強烈委身 ---> 不委身
└──────┘
5) Intensification

┌───────┐ 1)Intensification /Revitalization.

│ □ -----> □ │
│ ^ │
│ □ ------| │
└───────┘

1.神 學 上: 『出黑暗入光明』徒2:47下; 弗3:18

-->與信徒有新的相交。 初信者保持信仰的因素是 歡迎他的會眾(the welcoming congregation)。
是 Seppo Syrjanen 所強調的。

2.社會學上:
(P.L.Berger/T. Luckmann) The Social construction of a Reality
Definition:

Primary Soicalization: upbringing of child. (identity) [The circle of intimacy reltaionship is important.]
Secondary Soicalization: Conflicet with new sub-world [eg school mates, friends. sometimes, it may be radical.]

A radical socialization may be compared to the primary socialization
The most obvious example is a religious conversion.
Conversion as socialization into a new group/forming a new identity.
Conditions of persistence of the conversion:

a.The conversion can only be maintained in a milieu that confirms the new identity.
b.This milieu has to replicate the setting of children's upbringing; in other words a family-like fellowship.
Remarks : Application Problems
1) Community members don't know how to face nwe members--> fear to offend him.
(And sometimes due to the low self-esteem of community members themselves.)
2) They tend to interconnected in closed circle. (more secure)


 

新家庭: 早期教會信主後的困難。(家庭困難) --> 需要「新家庭」
C.因信主而引起的家庭問題:
1.二類信主情況
a.全家信主 (通常是家主信耶穌,全家跟從。當代文化是家主決定全家信仰的!!)
例如: 徒 11:14 『可以叫你和你的全家得救』
但宗教信仰是由母親下傳的(提摩太),而且父親是家中的神,要敬拜他!
b.信主時是未得家主(pater familieas)同意 或 逆他的意見的。

2.引起的家庭問題(聖經中反映):
a.林前 7:12-16 保羅提到在不信丈夫的反對時,她可以離婚!!
b.彼前 3:1-2,4,16 彼得提到在不信丈夫的反對時,她怎樣處理。

3.引起的家庭問題(猶太人中反映):
a.馬吉安抄本的路23:2 加上「他欺騙婦人和小孩」。
b.二個古拉丁文抄本的路23:5 加上「他引我們的妻子和孩子離開我們」。
因馬吉安抄本是後期的抄本,所以反映後期的情況。

4.引起的家庭問題(外邦人中反映):
a.西心(Celsus)說基督徒「只會欺騙婦人和小孩」。對他們便不敢發言。
[參猶斯丁(Justin Martyr) 的護教(Apology) 第二章。]
b.他西特(Tacitus) 說基督徒準備犧牲父母,子女 和兄弟。
c.路斯(Lucias Apuleins) 在他的書「金驢」(The Golden Ass)中

他形容一個基督徒婦人怎樣惡待丈夫。她是又懶又惡的!!

總結: 主要的問題是破壞了家庭的和諧,以致引起社會不和諧。
例如:

a.Plutarch's Advice to Bride and Groom 19. (註4)
妻子要放棄自己的朋友,而以丈夫的朋友為她的朋友。而丈夫的朋友中以他的
神祗(gods)最重要!!
註4: Information on Plutarch: Koester, Helmut. Introduction to the NT Vol 1:
History, Culture, & Religion of the Hellenistic Age (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982) pp.358-361 [信神書號 225.09 k819i v.1]
Int: He doesn't belong to any philosophical school, but separated from market-place philosophers becauses he has comprehensive education.
He is from Chaeronea in Boeotia (c.a. 46/48 - 120/125 CE), a noble family. studied philosophy in Athen. At age 55, he become a priest of Apollo in Delphi. < He is a younger contemporary of Paul>
His articles are collected under Moralia (Moral eudcation) He is a Platonist, with some Stoic & Aristotelian thought. He criticizes the idols(in material form) & myths of poets as divine.(He rejects allegorical interpretation) He believes that there are two world souls between God & matter, one is good & the other is evil (beneath the moon; under demons) Platonic world-view & demons are widely accepted in his days.

b.他西特(Tacitus) 說: (Ann. 15:44 quoted in Hengel p.60)

基督教是「反社會的宗教」,「人類的敵人」(odium humani generis)。

c.西羅(Cicero)(羅馬人) 說:
家是一個神聖的地方,家庭敬拜是很重要的! (家是聖所!-->敬拜偶像之地方)

註: 妻子負責傳達宗教信仰,而且要敬拜父親(即丈夫)。[參提摩太的母親]

附: 同學分享: (香港的人信主後的困難。)


1) 古代家庭 -- 綜覽 (家庭提供甚麼﹖)

I.當時的家庭
A.種類:

1.核心家庭(Nuclear/Conjugal family): 父母和子女。
例: Cicero, Cic. off I. 54-55 家庭包括夫妻 和 父母-子女兩種關係。
2.大家庭(Extended/Community family)
例: 路 14:12 包括其他兄弟姊妹 和 表兄妹等。[對比 孔子思想]
耶穌說稱門徒是朋友, 不是主僕。(是屬於同一家庭!)
3.宿主家庭(Patron/Clients or friends): 像中國的孟嘗君。
宿主提供物質, 而「朋友」在大選時支持他。此關係可擴展數代。
例: 徒 10:24,27(﹖); 路 16 的 拉撒路。(有學者不認為拉撒路是與那富人有
關。Rohrbaugh, Richard L. The Biblical Interpreteter (Philadelphia:
Fortress, 1978) pp.77-78. The quthor take Lazarus as an outcasts of
society, but not "urban poor"(eg merchants, artisans,craftsmen) or
rural poor (peasants), or a friend of rich man as Dr. Sandnes sugg-
ested. [Bk code: 220.601 R636b C.2]
Ref:Dio Halicarnassus (Roman History)
ヾ Mutual support
ゝ Closely related to friendship. To be a friend is part of the
oikos (house).
Aristotle: live together share same opinion --> family.
Conclusion:
Usuallly, they are nucleus families, but social bond is closely
knitted. eg dyadic personality: Jesus is called by his villagers
by his family. A man is nothing without hsi family.
However, in modern culture, individualism suppress dyadic personality.
Comtrast: OT -------------> abba
(contemporary)
God as Father :
Israel Jesus
1. Group (dyadic) 1. Individual.
2. Remote 2. Close relationship with God.
Abba = daddy
3. ---------- 3. 'abba' is an distinctive.
Mk 14:36/ Rom 8:15/ Gal 4:6

B.家庭的對成員的好處:
引言: 家庭的社會功用將會集中「大家庭」--安全和照顧的責任。大家庭是社會最

基 本的單位, 藉著它來下傳社會地位和財富。一個人的社會地位, 榮譽和身份與
他所屬的家庭有密切的關係。家庭提供成員身份, 歸屬感和社會上的支持和保
障--- 「集体人格」(a dyadic personality)。[B.J.Malina]

四種關係是家庭所提供的社會性保障。

1.父母對子女的責任 和 子女對父母的責任。
2.家庭中某成員的子女,因一些原因被棄時,其他成員會負責任。
3.對親生兄弟姊妹的責任。愛父母的,必愛兄弟姊妹。應用:愛神的,必愛其他信徒。
4.對朋友的責任。朋友不可多,因要負很太的責任。(對比: 中國的「八拜之交」)


2) 字 彙: 新約中的家庭字彙。(初信者遇上一個使用家庭字彙的群体)
1)福音書
a.父 神: 太5:45 <對比 以色列民以神為父>
b.產 業: 路15:11-32
c.新家庭: 可10:23-30的回報是 可3:31-35。(新種型的家庭)

2)保羅書信
a.父神
耶穌是神的兒子:
信徒是神的兒子: 是後裔--> 兄弟姊妹。 弗2:11-20
b.保羅是屬靈父親
他給信徒的書信: 門 16 --> 『弟兄們』(文法上只要有一個男性在很多
女性中也要用雄性。
新 家 庭: 加3:28

結論:不是純綷是名詞,而是真實的關係。

 

3) 基督徒怎樣生活對比古代的家庭 (How Christians live together, compared with Antiquity family.)

註: 『弟兄』(羅14:10,15,21) 會眾中有紛爭。 他使用單數來表達情感和親切感。
『姊妹』(林前8:11)
弗2:11-20 『從前(v.11) ...........現在(v.13)』(pote........nuni)
外人 家中成員 (加 6:10)
對兒子的命令(imperative of a son) [對比 可3]
N.B. In family, polarity of sex is important; but Paul's ignores it in church.
Therefore, family-like (Jesus' approach), not family as such.


論 證 1: 早期教會 的 社會背景: 家庭。(家庭教會)


II.家庭教會(House-church)
A.分布(只參新約,不計教父時期的資料)

羅 馬: 羅 16:5,10-11, 14-15
哥 林 多: 林前1:14-16; 16:15; 羅 16:23; 徒 18:2,7-8
堅 革 哩: 羅 16:1-2
帖撒羅尼迦: 徒 17:5-6
腓 立 比: 徒 16:15,33,40
以 弗 所: 徒 20:20; 林前 16:19; 提後 4:19
哥 羅 西: 門 1-2
老 底 嘉: 西 4:15
該 撒 利亞: 徒 10:1-11:18; 21:8-9
耶 路 撒冷: 徒 1:12-14; 2:46; 5:42; 8:3; 12:12

總結:

1.大量的家庭教會。

2.分布在不同的地方。

B.這些家庭教會是怎樣開始的呢 ﹖
1.理論: 「一家之主」信耶穌,全家歸主。
2.證據:
徒 11:14 『可以叫你和你的全家得救』
徒 16:15,40 (教會群体的核心是家庭)
他和他一家既領了洗,便求我們說,你們若以為我是真信主的,(或作你們若以為
我是忠心事主的)請到我家堥茪G人出了監,往呂底亞家堨h.見了弟兄們,勸慰
他們一番,就走了。 註: 呂底亞(Lydia)可能是寡婦,繼續丈夫的生意。
徒 16:31-34
他們說,當信主耶穌,你和你一家都必得救。他們就把主的道,講給他和他全家的
人聽。當夜,就在那時候,禁卒把他們帶去,洗他們的傷.他和屬乎他的人,立時
都受了洗。於是禁卒領他們上自己家堨h.給他們擺上飯,他和全家,因為信了神
,都很喜樂。
徒 18:8
管會堂的基利司布和全家都信了主.還有許多哥林多人聽了,就相信受洗。
按徒16:31-34 和18:8 有以下模式:
****早期教會增長方式: 家庭 --> 親人 --> 朋友 --> 鄰居。(另參 徒14:12)

C. 同一地方家庭教會的關係是怎樣的呢 ﹖
1.理論: 在某日所有人於一家庭聚會,平時各自聚會。(但可能只限於哥林多城)
2.證據:

a.羅 16:23『接待全教會的該猶(Gaius)』和 林前14:23。
b.猶斯丁(Justin Martyr) 死於主後165年。在羅馬。
在 1 Apol.67 ,他說: 「在星期日,所有人聚集在一處地方。」

3.反論:

a.以上所引經文只是哥林多的教會情況;可能該猶是極有錢的人才能夠。
可能其他教會不同, 因無這樣大的屋。
b.猶斯丁的可能解作是各人於「一些人的家庭」聚會。而非「一間屋」。
c.另外, 在猶斯丁傳中他說:「我只認識一個的家庭聚會地方。」
而且太多人不可能在同一地方崇拜。

註:信主後的外邦人會與使徒一起吃飯,以示被使徒接納。例如:徒10:48; 徒9(保羅);
徒16(獄卒 和 呂底亞---她強留使徒吃飯!!)

The Significance of the family for the growth of early Christianty
Jesus's family; Jesus movement(apostle's); Early church: John Mark

Householde Code and House Community
Because Christians lived in household as well as house church.

see also C:\SUNCOURS\SOCIO&NT\HOUSCODE.CWI
註2: Derek Tidball, An Introduction to the Sociology of the NT, p.76f

1) City Community : Politeria
A City is under Rome, but has local ruler, coins, customs etc.
Herod's divinity (Ac 12:19-23; Lk22:25)-->Ac 14:11-18; 19:23-41; 28:
1-6. Dissatissafication arises: a)seek universal brotherhood
b) ideal city c)church ---> all men are members.

2) Household Community: Oikonomia
families or sometimes individuals under a senior male.
friends/clients <---- freed slave voluntarily join.

3) Voluntary association : Koinonia
Status & emotional outlet. Roman doesn't concern--> secrecy caused
ban. Assoication's deity.(1 Cor 8) Judaism as voluntary association
AD 120 Emperor Trajan's reply to Pliny's examination of christians.




論 證 2: 家庭字彙 的 作用: 鼓勵家庭式的關懷。


Admonitions to practice brotherly love:
Philadelphia ; 1Jn 3:17; Rom 12:10

The Body Metaphor - The Community as brotherhood
1 Cor 12:4-30


論 證 3: 弟兄生活 的 例子:(The Philadelphia Way of Life in the Early Church)
太25:31-46
對應 家庭的三個作用:Caring & sharing, hospitality, support for prisoners.
徒2:44-45/4:32-35
A sharing & caring fellowship

 



論 證 4: 外 人 的 看法: 作為Control。